Academic
Publications
Ten Common Misunderstandings, Misconceptions, Persistent Myths and Urban Legends about Likert Scales and Likert Response Formats and their Antidotes

Ten Common Misunderstandings, Misconceptions, Persistent Myths and Urban Legends about Likert Scales and Likert Response Formats and their Antidotes,1

Ten Common Misunderstandings, Misconceptions, Persistent Myths and Urban Legends about Likert Scales and Likert Response Formats and their Antidotes   (Citations: 12)
BibTex | RIS | RefWorks Download
Abstract: A recent article by Jamieson in Medical Education outlined some of the (alleged) abuses of “Likert scales” with ,suggestions ,about how ,researchers can ,overcome ,some ,of the ,(alleged) methodological pitfalls and limitations,. However, many of the ideas advanced in the Jamison article, aswell as a great many of articles it cited, and similar recent articles in medical, health, psychology, and educational journals and books, are themselves common misunderstandings, misconceptions, conceptual errors, persistent myths and “urban legends” about “Likert scales” and their characteristics and qualities that have been propagated and perpetuated across six decades, for a variety of different reasons. This article identifies, analyses and traces many of these aforementioned problems and presents the arguments, counter arguments and empirical evidence that show these many persistent claims and myths about “Likert scales” to be factually incorrect and untrue. Many studies have shown that Likert Scales (as opposed,to single Likert response format items) produce interval data and that the F-test is very robust to violations of the interval data assumption,and moderate skewing,and may beused to analyze “Likert data” (even if it is ordinal), but not on an item-by-item “shotgun” basis, which is simply a current research and analysis practice that must stop. After sixty years, it is more than time to dispel these particular research myths and urban legends as well as the various damage and problems they cause, and put them to bed and out of their misery once and for all. Keywords: formats, Likert, measurement, psychological, scales
Journal: Journal of Social Sciences , vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 106-116, 2007
Cumulative Annual
View Publication
The following links allow you to view full publications. These links are maintained by other sources not affiliated with Microsoft Academic Search.
    • ...Participants were asked, ‘What is the effect (negative or positive) that each of the following could have [on] the internationalisation of the curriculum?' The items used a 1–5 Likert response format (Carifio and Perla 2007), ranging from negative through somewhat negative, neutral and somewhat positive to positive, and included (1) ‘Your personal interest' (2) ‘Relevance to your job', (3) ‘Student's interest in internationalised curricula', (4) ‘Your international knowledge/expertise' and (5) ‘Your ability to develop internationalised curricula (eg, you may have the necessary international knowledge but are not sure of how to use it effectively in your classes)'...

    Emmanuel Jean Francois. Development of a scale to assess faculty motivation for internationali...

    • ...Although the data are ordinal, data were analysed as if they were interval (Carifo and Perla 2007)...

    Sue R. Whittleet al. Recent changes to students' perceptions of their key skills on entry t...

    • ...Researchers have found that the number of options in a response format (i.e., two responses would be ‘‘agree’’ and ‘‘disagree’’, and three would be ‘‘agree’’, ‘‘neutral’’, and ‘‘disagree’’) correlates significantly (r =? 0.92) to a rating response scale of 100 ml line response format (Carifio 1976, 1978; Carifio and Perla 2007); this suggests that the choice to use a three-interval or four-interval format would make no difference to the ...

    Michael H. Romanowskiet al. Faculty perceptions of academic freedom at a GCC university

    • ...See [13] for a discussion on the use of questionnaires based upon Likert scale...

    C. Alveset al. A qualitative risk model for offshoring IT applications

Sort by: