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Tardigrades as ‘Stem-Group Arthropods’: The Evidence from the Cambrian Fauna

Tardigrades as ‘Stem-Group Arthropods’: The Evidence from the Cambrian Fauna,10.1078/0044-5231-00034,Zoologischer Anzeiger,Graham E. Budd

Tardigrades as ‘Stem-Group Arthropods’: The Evidence from the Cambrian Fauna   (Citations: 36)
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The Cambrian fauna can now reasonably be seen as containing many taxa that lie in the stem-groups of the extant phyla. As such, these fossils suggest how both the ‘body plans’ of extant phyla were assembled, and also how various ‘minor’ phyla relate to the larger groupings of today such as the arthropods and annelids.The various arthropod and lobopod taxa of the Cambrian faunas have been controversial and have generally been considered either as lying in the crown or (occasionally) stem groups of the euarthropods, onychophorans and tardigrades. However, phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests that many of even the most euarthropod-like taxa do not lie within the euarthropod crown-group but are more basal. Further, the commonly expressed view that Cambrian lobopods are in effect stem- or crown-group onychophorans also seems not to be well supported. Lobopods in the Cambrian appear to be diverse and not particularly closely related to one another, and certainly cannot be combined in a monophyletic clade.Both these advances offer hope that the tardigrades (placed as the sister group to the euarthropods in many analyses of extant taxa, here collectively named the Tactopoda) may be more closely related to some of these Cambrian taxa than others. The challenge for both neontologists and palaeontologists is to refine the systematic analysis of both living and fossil taxa in order to maximise the usefulness of the (admittedly few) characters that unite tardigrades to their Cambrian forbears.
Journal: Zoologischer Anzeiger - ZOOL ANZ , vol. 240, no. 3, pp. 265-279, 2001
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    • ...Budd 2001a, b), thus making it identical with the usage of Lobopodia in, for example, Budd (1999a)...

    Graham E. Budd. Campanamuta mantonae gen. et. sp. nov., an exceptionally preserved art...

    • ...Currently, tardigrades are regarded as either the sister group of arthropods, of onychophorans, of onychophorans plus arthropods, or of one of the cycloneuralian taxa (nematodes, kinorhynchs, and allies) [10,11,41,46-54]...

    Georg Mayeret al. A revision of brain composition in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggests...

    • ...The phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada, a group of small metazoans with many unique and autapomorphic features, have always been controversially discussed (see Richters and Krumbach 1928; Giribet et al. 1996; Ax 1999; Budd 2001; Nielsen 2001; Kristensen 2003; Jenner and Scholtz 2005)...
    • ...However, even if one accepts tardigrade aYnities to arthropods whether tardigrades are the sister group to Euarthropoda (Dewel et al. 1999; Edgecombe et al. 2000; Budd 2001; Maas and Waloszek 2001; Nielsen 2001), to Onychophora plus Euarthropoda (see discussion in Schmidt-Rhaesa et al. 1998; Bergström and Hou 2001; Schmidt-Rhaesa 2001) or to Onychophora (e.g...

    Juliane Zantkeet al. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the central nervous system of Macr...

    • ...are though to be descendents of cephalorhynch-like worms (a recidivism of annelidlike arthropod ancestor hypothesis) and ancestors of the Onychophora and the Anomalocaridida, which in turn were stem groups of the Euarthropoda (chelicerates, trilobites, crustaceans, insects, and various myriapods) (Dzik and Krumbiegel 1989; Budd 2001a; Liu et al. 2008b; Budd and Telford 2009; Daley et al. 2009; Ma et al. 2009)...

    José Antonio Gámez Vintanedet al. A New Early Cambrian Lobopod-Bearing Animal (Murero, Spain) and the Pr...

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