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Multiplepoint geostatistics: a quantitative vehicle for integrating geologic analogs into multiple reservoir models

Multiplepoint geostatistics: a quantitative vehicle for integrating geologic analogs into multiple reservoir models,JEF CAERS,TUANFENG ZHANG

Multiplepoint geostatistics: a quantitative vehicle for integrating geologic analogs into multiple reservoir models   (Citations: 26)
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Abstract While outcrop models can provide important information on reservoir architecture and heterogeneity, it is not entirely clear how such information can be used exhaus- tively in geostatistical reservoir modeling. Traditional, variogram-based geostatistics is inadequate in that regard since the variogram,is too limiting in capturing geological heterogeneity from outcrops. A new field, termed multiple-point geostatistics does not rely on variogram models¿ Instead, it allows capturing structure from so-called ”training images”. Multiple-point geostatistics borrows multiple-point patterns from the training image, then anchors them to subsurface well-log, seismic and production data. Never- theless, multiple-point geostatistics does not escape from the same principles as tradi- tional variogram-based geostatistics: it is still a stochastic method, hence relies on the often forgotten principles of stationarity and ergodicity. These principles dictate that the training image used in multiple-point geostatistics cannot be chosen arbitrarily, and that not all outcrops might be suitable training image models. In this paper we outline the guiding principles of using analog models in multiple-point geostatistics and show that simple so-called modular training images can be used to build complex,reservoir models using geostatistics algorithms. 2
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    • ...Accordingly, the reproduction of large scale patterns such as channels would require a large training image, since multiple-point statistics—like any statistics—tend to fluctuate, and that fluctuation becomes larger as the distances over which these statistics are calculated become larger (Caers and Zhang 2002)...

    S. De Iacoet al. Validation Techniques for Geological Patterns Simulations Based on Var...

    • ...Multipoint statistical simulation (MPS) techniques (Guardiano and Srivastava 1993; Strebelle 2002; Caers and Zhang 2004), such as single normal equation simulation (snesim), provide a more flexible grid-based alternative for simulating patterns from a training image (TI) that represents a structural prior model...
    • ...(Guardiano and Srivastava 1993; Strebelle 2002; Caers and Zhang 2004 )a s well as higher-order spatial statistics and connectivity measures, such as spatial cumulants (Dimitrakopoulos et al. 2010; Mustapha and Dimitrakopoulos 2010), have recently been proposed as alternative modeling frameworks for complex spatial data...
    • ...The snesim facies simulation algorithm is suitable for modeling geologic formations that contain predominantly discrete objects such as fluvial and turbidite channels (Strebelle 2002; Caers and Zhang 2004)...
    • ...It stores the transition probabilities by moving from the root node and considering possible pattern configurations (Strebelle 2002; Caers and Zhang 2004)...

    Behnam Jafarpouret al. A Probability Conditioning Method (PCM) for Nonlinear Flow Data Integr...

    • ...Multiple-point geostatistics aims to overcome the limitations of variogrambased approaches by moving beyond two-point correlations between variables and simultaneously computing (cross) correlation moments between variables at three or more locations (Guardiano and Srivastava 1993; Strebelle and Journel 2001; Strebelle 2000, 2002; Caers and Zhang 2004; Hu and Chugunova 2008)...
    • ...Moreover, training images are bound by the principles of stationarity and ergodicity (Caers and Zhang 2004)...
    • ...It consists of 250 by 250 cells of size 0.2 m by 0.2 m. This training image was obtained after processing a training image from Caers and Zhang (2004)...

    Marijke Huysmanset al. Direct MultiplePoint Geostatistical Simulation of Edge Properties for ...

    • ...The intention is to advance work in the vein of Scheibe and Murray [1998], Scheibe and Yabusaki [1998], Arbogast et al. [2000], Willis and White [2000], Christie and Blunt [2001], Rubin et al. [2003], Zinn and Harvey [2003], Caers and Zhang [2004], Liu et al. [2004], Aarnes et al. [2006], Maji et al. [2006], Ronayne and Gorelick [2006], Lee et al. [2007], and Durlofsky et al. [2007] by providing realistic representations of heterogeneity ...

    Arijit Guinet al. Simulating the heterogeneity in braided channel belt deposits: 2. Exam...

    • ...As a two‐ point statistical measure, the variogram is not diagnostic of complex heterogeneity and multipoint patterns [Caers and Zhang, 2004; Western et al., 2001]...

    Michael J. Ronayneet al. Geological modeling of submeter scale heterogeneity and its influence ...

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