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Perspectives on transportation issues: The importance of having physically fit cattle and pigs

Perspectives on transportation issues: The importance of having physically fit cattle and pigs,T. Grandin

Perspectives on transportation issues: The importance of having physically fit cattle and pigs   (Citations: 3)
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One of the most important issues is starting with an animal that is fit for transport. It is impossible to assure good animal welfare during trans- port if the animal is unfit. Severely lame or weak, emaci- ated animals are not fit for transport. Recent figures on the incidence of nonambulatory cull dairy cows show that the problem has become worse since 1993. In beef cattle there has been a slight improvement. A major factor causing unfitness in some cows and pigs is over- selection for milk or meat production. Lameness may be increasing in some high-producing dairy cows and sows. Modern hybrid pigs, which have been selected for rapid growth, leanness, and a large loin area, are often prone to stress that causes the pig to become nonambu- latory. Observations at packing plants indicate that in certain genetic lines the incidence of transit deads and
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