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Short-term and Long-term Effects of Violent Media on Aggression in Children and Adults

Short-term and Long-term Effects of Violent Media on Aggression in Children and Adults,Brad J. Bushman,L. Rowell Huesmann

Short-term and Long-term Effects of Violent Media on Aggression in Children and Adults   (Citations: 56)
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Objectives: To test whether the results of the accumu- lated studies on media violence and aggressive behavior are consistent with the theories that have evolved to ex- plain the effects. We tested for the existence of both short- term and long-term effects for aggressive behavior. We also tested the theory-driven hypothesis that short-term effects should be greater for adults and long-term ef- fects should be greater for children. Design: Meta-analysis. Participants: Children younger than 18 years and adults. Main Exposures: Violent media, including TV, mov- ies, video games, music, and comic books. Main Outcome Measures: Measures of aggressive be- havior, aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologi- cal arousal (eg, heart rate, blood pressure), and helping behavior. Results: Effect size estimates were combined using meta- analytic procedures. As expected, the short-term effects of violent media were greater for adults than for children whereas the long-term effects were greater for children than for adults. The results also showed that there were overall modest but significant effect sizes for exposure to media violence on aggressive behaviors, aggressive thoughts, an- gry feelings, arousal levels, and helping behavior. Conclusions: The results are consistent with the theory that short-term effects are mostly due to the priming of existing well-encoded scripts, schemas, or beliefs, which adults have had more time to encode. In contrast, long- term effects require the learning (encoding) of scripts, schemas, or beliefs. Children can encode new scripts, sche- mas, and beliefs via observational learning with less in- terference and effort than adults. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160:348-352
Published in 2006.
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    • ...What does it take to produce such effects? The model proposes that even one or two script rehearsals can be sufficient for learning (see also Bushman & Huesmann, 2006), but that frequent rehearsal (such as might result from repeated exposure to media depictions) leads to more accessible scripts and schema, with stronger links between the various components and more connections with other concepts in memory...

    Marie-Louise Mareset al. Pessimism and Anxiety: Effects of Tween Sitcoms on Expectations and Fe...

    • ...Firstly, although not all kinds of music induce positive emotions (see Bushman & Huesmann, 2006 for review), our experience showed that selecting specific types of music played at adequate contexts throughout the course arouses positive emotions (Lenton & Martin, 1991) which, based on the ‘broaden-and-build’ theory (Fredrickson, 2001), can lead to creativity and more openness to the material...

    Pninit Russo-Netzeret al. ‘Learning from success’: A close look at a popular positive psychology...

    • ...Immediate, short-term effects are mainly the result of priming existing knowledge structures, such as various types of schemata and scripts (see Bushman & Huesmann, 2006)...
    • ...Such conditions are rarely (or never) encountered in the existing violent video game experiments, which is why most video game violence researchers believe that the existing short-term effects are mainly the result of priming effects (e.g., Anderson et al., 2003, 2007; Bushman & Huesmann, 2006; Kirsh, 2006; Krahe´, 2001)...
    • ...In experimental studies, the lack of player perspective (first or third person), player role (hero, criminal), time on game, and target (human, nonhuman) all suggest that the short-term effects of violent video games on aggression are largely the result of priming processes (see Bushman & Huesmann, 2006)...

    Craig A. Andersonet al. Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behav...

    • ...Infrequent exposure is not likely to produce lasting consequences, but parents, particularly need to be urged to protect their children against the kinds of repeated exposures that excessive play with violent video games or immersion in violent TV programs is likely to produce(4)...

    Munni Rayet al. Effect of electronic media on children

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