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Photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision in cows, goats, and sheep

Photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision in cows, goats, and sheep,10.1017/S0952523898153154,Visual Neuroscience,GERALD H. JACOBS,JESS F. DEEGA

Photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision in cows, goats, and sheep   (Citations: 21)
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Electroretinogram (ERG) flicker photometry was used to measure the spectral properties of cones in three common ungulates—cattle ( Bos taurus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Two cone mechanisms were identified in each species. The location of peak sensitivity of an S-cone mechanism varied from about 444 to 455 nm for the three species; analogous values for an M0L-cone were tightly clumped at about 552-555 nm. Each of these three species has the requisite photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision and they are, thus, similar to other ungulates examined earlier.
Journal: Visual Neuroscience - VISUAL NEUROSCI , vol. 15, no. 03, 1998
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    • ...Most livestock are partially colour blind and the retina is most sensitive to yellowish green and bluish purple with no receptor pigment for red (12)...

    Temple Grandin. Engineering and design of holding yards, loading ramps and handling fa...

    • ...Cattle are believed to possess some color vision, in common with nearly all mammals (Jacobs et al., 1998), and early research (Rochon-Duvigneaud, 1943) suggested a high proportion of cones in the retina (2 to 3:1 rods:cones in the central region of the retina, increasing to 5 to 6:1 at the periphery...
    • ...Peak photopic spectral sensitivities occur at 455 and 554 nm (Jacobs et al., 1998), suggesting dichromatic vision, but color discrimination potential is difficult to predict from knowledge of spectral sensitivity of terrestrial mammals (Jacobs, 1993), partly because of the moderation of wavelength when light is absorbed by the lens and the tapetum (Jacobs et al., 1998)...
    • ...Peak photopic spectral sensitivities occur at 455 and 554 nm (Jacobs et al., 1998), suggesting dichromatic vision, but color discrimination potential is difficult to predict from knowledge of spectral sensitivity of terrestrial mammals (Jacobs, 1993), partly because of the moderation of wavelength when light is absorbed by the lens and the tapetum (Jacobs et al., 1998)...
    • ...The prediction that spectral sensitivity of the calves terminated at about 620 nm agrees with electroretinogram measurements by Jacobs et al. (1998), who demonstrated that sensitivity of medium-long wavelength cones in cattle declines rapidly above 600 nm...

    C. J. C. Phillipset al. The Perception of Color by Cattle and its Influence on Behavior1

    • ...Cat 447 554 Behavior:ERG Loop, Millican and, Thomas (1987); Jacobs and Neitz (1986b) Coati ERG Jacobs and Deegan (1992) 554 Pig 439 556 ERG Neitz and Jacobs (1989) 444‐455 Cow, goat, ERG Jacobs, Deegan and Neitz (1998) sheep 450‐460 White-tailed ERG Jacobs et al. (1994) deer...

    Chuan-Chin Chiaoet al. Spectral tuning of dichromats to natural scenes

    • ...Color vision in goats (as well as many other ungulates) is dichromatic, with receptor peak sensitivities at 443 and 553 nm (Jacobs et al. 1998; Carroll et al. 2001)...
    • ...Color lines for goats (dichromatic) were calculated using receptor sensitivity data from Jacobs et al. (1998), using a similar approach but for only two receptors...
    • ...Although we do not know the minimal color distance for goats, such that will allow for reliable color discrimination, these and other ungulates are known to have two types of color sensing cells, with max responses at *450 and *550 nm (Jacobs et al. 1998; Carroll et al. 2001)...

    Yoram GerchmanItayet al. Beyond pollinator attraction: extra-floral displays deter herbivores i...

    • ...The placental retina generally contains two kinds of ‘‘single’’ cone (Jacobs 1993) each characterized by a uniquely expressed opsin as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry (Sze ´l et al. 1994a, b), light and electron microscopy (Carter-Dawson and LaVail 1979), electroretinography (ERG; Jacobs et al. 1998), and behavioral techniques (Jacobs et al. 2001)...

    James D. Akulaet al. The scotopic electroretinogram of the sugar glider related to histolog...

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