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The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth in the Middle East and North Africa

The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth in the Middle East and North Africa,Stephan Klasen,Francesca Lamanna

The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth in the Middle East and North Africa   (Citations: 9)
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Using cross-country and panel regressions, we investigate to what extent gender gaps in education and employment reduce economic growth. Using most recent data and investigating a long time period (1960-2000), we update the results of previous studies on education gaps on growth and extend the analysis to employment gaps using panel data. We then calculate the magnitude of the effects by comparing actual growth in the Middle East and North Africa with growth that would have taken place had they had the much smaller gender gaps in East Asia and the Pacific. Our point estimates suggest that the growth 'costs' of gender gaps in education, when considered alone, amount to about 0.7 percentage points per capita per year, and the combined 'costs' of education and employment gaps there amount to 0.7-1.5 percentage point differences in growth, based on our preferred specification. Gender gaps in employment appear to have a larger effect than gender gaps in education, although this finding should be treated as preliminary.
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    • ..., 2002; Klasen & Lamanna, 2003; Yamarik & Ghosh, 2003)...

    Stephan Klasen. The Efficiency of Equity

    • ...They artificially reduce the pool of talent from which employers can draw, thereby reducing the average ability of the workforce (Klasen and Lamanna 2003)...
    • ...as well as type of employment (position in hierarchy and sectors, for instance) similarly reduces economic growth (Klasen 1999; Klasen and Lamanna 2003; Besley et al. 2004)...
    • ...24 See, for example, Klasen and Lamanna (2003); Sauer (2001)...
    • ...Source: Authors calculations based on Klasen and Lamanna (2003)...
    • ...In contrast to other regions, however, these activity rates have fallen slightly over the past 40 years while they have risen strongly elsewhere (Klasen and Lamanna 2003)...
    • ...Data from the ILO suggest that formal sector employment rates in SSA are not any higher than in South Asia or the Middle East, and are much lower than in East Asia, Latin America, or ECA (Klasen and Lamanna 2003)...
    • ...With respect to the economic impacts of this crowding of women in informal activities and their associated low share in formal sector employment, Klasen and Lamanna (2003) estimate the simultaneous impact of gender gaps in education and formal sector employment on economic growth in a panel framework...
    • ...35 Given that non-agricultural employment does not play such a quantitatively large role in Uganda at present (as a share of GDP or the labour force), the impact of gender inequalities in access to such employment is likely to be smaller than in regions with larger shares of non-agricultural employment (such as the Middle East and North Africa; see Klasen and Lamanna 2003)...

    Mark Blackdenet al. Gender and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • ...Klasen and Lamanna (2003) use updated data (up to the year 2000) to revisit the empirical relationship between gender inequality and growth...
    • ...Thus our reading of the existing studies is that the negative impact of gender inequality in education on growth has been substantiated in studies that use a growth regression framework (Klasen, 2002; Klasen and Lamanna, 2003; Forbes, 2000; Yamarik and Ghosh, 2003) and a Solow framework (Knowles et al., 2002) while the studies finding different results have all been shown to be problematic in one respect or another...

    Dina Abu-Ghaidaet al. The Economic and Human Development Costs of Missing the Millennium Dev...

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