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Classification of Wheat by Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance from Single Kernels

Classification of Wheat by Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance from Single Kernels,STEPHEN R. DELWICHE,DAVID R. MASSIE

Classification of Wheat by Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance from Single Kernels   (Citations: 29)
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Cereal Chem. 73(3):399-405 Identification of wheat class is a necessary component of the official multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop binary decision inspection of U.S. wheat, owing to differences in functionality and hence models for various combinations of two wheat classes, choosing from in trade value. Because of the numerous cultivars for the several U.S. five classes: hard white (HWH), hard red spring (HRS), hard red winter wheat classes, segregation by cultivar is generally impractical during (HRW), soft red winter (SRW), and soft white (SWH). Two-class model postharvest handling. Cultivars of differing wheat classes are sometimes accuracy, defined as the proportion of correctly identified kernels of a inadvertently mixed, resulting in classification of the lot to a mixed cate- known wheat class, was greatest (99%) when red and white classes such as gory, thus lowering its value. Single-kernel near-infrared reflectance HRW vs. HWH were compared. Accuracies declined to typically 78-91% scans from two spectral regions (551-750 nm for distinctions based on when the two classes were of similar color (e.g., HRW vs. SRW, HWH color, 1,120-2,476 nm for distinctions based on intrinsic properties) vs. SWH). Using a cascade of binary comparisons similar to two-class were collected on 10 randomly drawn kernels from each of 318 unique models, a five-class model structure was developed. Five-class model samples obtained from commercial sources. Partial least squares and accuracy ranged from 65% for SRW wheat to 92% for SWH. Because of its large geographical and climatological diversity, the United States produces several classes of wheat. Unlike gov- ernments of many of the other wheat-producing countries, the U.S. government does not regulate the development nor license the release of new wheat lines. Because of these factors, numer- ous wheat cultivars exist in the U.S. market. In the market chan- nels, it is common for wheat to be segregated by class but not by cultivar, although classes may be intentionally blended to produce a specialty product. When a mixture of two or more classes occurs inadvertently, rendering a lot <90% pure of one class, that lot must be classed as mixed, which causes its price to be devalued. All export wheat and some domestic wheat is inspected by the United States Department of Agriculture, Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS). When assigning wheat class, inspectors rely upon their knowledge of where the wheat was grown and an examination of the size, color, and shape of individual kernels. The proliferation of new varieties, often grown outside the traditional geographic areas formerly associated with each wheat class, has placed a large burden on inspectors to main- tain the accuracy of the current classification system. Research efforts are underway at several locations (Kansas City, MO; Man- hattan, KS; Peoria, IL; and Beltsville, MD) to develop rapid and objective classification methods to supplement the current system.
Published in 1996.
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    • ...We observed seven peaks in this region, which may be related to protein differences at ≈950 nm (Delwiche, 1993; Delwiche and Massie, 1996), the C H second overtone at ≈1 200 nm, protein, moisture and the C H (starch) first overtone at ≈1400–1600 nm (Wang et al., 2002), moisture at ≈1900 nm, and protein and combination bands at ≈1950–2250 nm. Since vitreousness and density are correlated with protein content (Dowell, 2000), the pattern was ...

    D. Ngonyamo-Majeeet al. Relationships between kernel vitreousness and dry matter degradability...

    • ...Our finding accords with previous studies that have demonstrated the efficacy of reflectance spectra in the visible region for classifying wheat kernels according to their color (Delwiche and Massie 1996; Dowell 1997, 1998; Wang et al. 1999)...

    Mulualem Tigabuet al. Germination of Juniperus procera seeds in response to stratification...

    • ...Previous studies have demonstrated the capability of VIS + NIR spectroscopy for characterization of sets of similar biological samples, for example, identification of sources of herbal medicines (Woo et al. 1999), classification of Gliricidia provenances (Lister et al. 2000), classification of soybean, rice and wheat varieties (Delwiche and Massie 1996; Kwon and Cho 1998; Turza et al. 1998), as well as classification of wheat kernels ...
    • ... the capability of VIS + NIR spectroscopy for characterization of sets of similar biological samples, for example, identification of sources of herbal medicines (Woo et al. 1999), classification of Gliricidia provenances (Lister et al. 2000), classification of soybean, rice and wheat varieties (Delwiche and Massie 1996; Kwon and Cho 1998; Turza et al. 1998), as well as classification of wheat kernels according to their colour (Delwiche and ...
    • ...Our finding accords with previous studies that have demonstrated the efficacy of reflectance spectra in the visible region for classifying wheat kernels according to their colour (Delwiche and Massie 1996; Dowell 1997; 1998; Wang et al. 1999)...

    Mulualem Tigabuet al. Identification of seed sources and parents of Pinus sylvestris L. usin...

    • ...NIRR and NIRT applications for measuring wheat characteristics include: wheat classification (Delwiche and Massie, 1996), color classification (Dowell, 1998), hardness measurement (Morris et al., 1999), protein content measurement (Delwiche, 1995), detecting internal insects (Ridgway and Chambers, 1996; Dowell et al., 1998), detecting scab damage and deoxynivalenol (Dowell et al., 1999; Williams, 1997), and detecting wheat–rye ...

    T. C. Pearsonet al. DETECTING AFLATOXIN IN SINGLE CORN KERNELS BY TRANSMITTANCE AND REFLEC...

    • ...Recent research on single wheat kernel quality measurement using NIR spectroscopy has successfully measured protein content (Delwiche 1995, 1998); wheat class (Song et al 1995, Delwiche and Massie 1996); color class (Dowell 1997, Dowell 1998, Wang et al 1999a, 1999b, 1999c); and insect damage (Dowell et al 1998, Baker et al 1999, Ridgway et al 1999)...

    D. Wanget al. Assessment of Heat-Damaged Wheat Kernels Using Near-Infrared Spectrosc...

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