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The Determinants of Life Expectancy: An Analysis of the OECD Health Data

The Determinants of Life Expectancy: An Analysis of the OECD Health Data,James W. Shaw,William C. Horrace,Ronald J. Vogel

The Determinants of Life Expectancy: An Analysis of the OECD Health Data   (Citations: 18)
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This study considers an aggregate life expectancy production function for a sample of developed countries. We find that pharmaceutical consumption has a positive effect on life expectancy at middle and advanced ages but is sensitive to the age distribution of a given country. Thus, ignoring age distribution in a regression of life expectancy on pharmaceutical consumption creates an omitted-variable bias in the pharmaceutical coefficient. We find that doubling annual pharmaceutical expenditures adds about one year of life expectancy for males at age 40 and slightly less than a year of life expectancy for females at age 65. We also present results for lifestyle inputs into the production of life expectancy. For example, decreasing tobacco consumption by about two cigarettes per day or increasing fruit and vegetable consumption by 30% (one-third pound per day) increases life expectancy approximately one year for 40-year-old females.
Published in 2005.
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    • ...Turning to the independent variables, we defined medical and non-medical inputs drawing on the literature of the production of health ([7-10], and [11])...

    Johannes Schoderet al. Flat-of-the-curve medicine: a new perspective on the production of hea...

    • ...Shaw, Horrace, & Vogel (2005) found that increasing annual pharmaceutical expenditures is associated with increased life expectancy for males 40 and over...

    Joseph D. Cangelosi Jret al. Who is Making Lifestyle Changes Due to Preventive Health Care Informat...

    • ...Life expectancy also influences fertility behavior, human capital investment (Shaw et al., 2005), and public funding on some basic human needs such as education and health care (Gradstein and Kaganovich, 2004), thereby determining the overall quality of life...
    • ...Few studies have been focused on life expectancy (Barlow and Vissandjee, 1999; Shaw et al., 2005)...
    • ...Shaw et al. (2005), for example, studied factors affecting life expectancy in developed countries...
    • ...First, most of these studies utilized a macro approach, employing data aggregated at a macroeconomic level (Shaw et al., 2005)...
    • ...Shaw et al. (2005) used wealth, education, and safety factors to control for the environmental measures; and Rao (1988) used temperature and precipitation...
    • ...Shaw et al. (2005) and Barlow and Vissandjee (1999) used per capita pharmaceutical expenditure to control for these facilities, but found them to be weak determinants...

    Neelam C. Poudyalet al. Evaluating natural resource amenities in a human life expectancy produ...

    • ...Up till now, empirical contributions have been based on parametric speciflcations (see e.g, Shaw et al., 2005) which may have the drawback of skipping out non-linearities inducing severe mis-speciflcation problems...
    • ...Shaw et al. (2005) studied life expectancy production function for a sample of OECD countries using a parametric speciflcation...
    • ...Shaw et al. (2005) also noted that this relation is sensitive to age distribution...
    • ...speciflcations considered by Peltzman (1987), Miller and Frich (2000) and Shaw et al. (2005)...
    • ...Observe that this flnding is consistent with Shaw et al. (2005) who showed that the actual predicted efiect of pharmaceutical expenditure on life expectancy is decreasing in age...

    Theophile T. Azomahouayet al. The role of consumption and the financing of health investment under e...

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