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The importance of Daphnia in determining mortality rates of protozoans and rotifers in lakes

The importance of Daphnia in determining mortality rates of protozoans and rotifers in lakes,10.4319/lo.1994.39.5.0985,Limnology and Oceanography,MICH

The importance of Daphnia in determining mortality rates of protozoans and rotifers in lakes   (Citations: 30)
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We measured mortality of protozoans and rotifers in three lakes of contrasting zooplankton commu- nities. We also compared protozoan growth in an experiment which controlled Daphnia biomass but varied body size. Mortality was determined as the difference between growth rates over 24 h in containers with and without zooplankton. Growth rates of heterotrophic flagellates and ciliates were high in the presence of a small assemblage of zooplankton and near zero or negative when either Daphnia pulex or Daphnia galeata was the dominant zooplankton species. Growth rates of rotifers were also usually lower in the presence of Daphnia. Mortality rates of heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, and rotifers were positively related to the mean body size of Daphnia in comparisons among experiments. In an experiment with equal biomasses but different sizes of D. pulex, flagellate growth rates were lower in treatments with large Daphnia. High mortality in zooplankton communities dominated by larger species of Daphnia appears to be important in determining differences in the abundances of protozoans and rotifers among lakes.
Journal: Limnology and Oceanography - LIMNOL OCEANOGR , vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 985-996, 1994
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    • ...The slope of the relationship between bacteria and chla (bact/chla) may be used as a measure of algal grazing pressure, with higher slopes meaning lower predator pressure (Pace & Cole, 1994; see Gasol & Duarte, 2000 for a review)...

    Ana Contyet al. Changes in bacterial and ciliate densities with trophic status in Medi...

    • ...In comparison, herbivorous cladoceran species were grouped into a separate functional group because they consume a wider array of items, such as bacteria, algae, protozoans, and small rotifers, and are prey for both larger zooplankton and fish (Pace and Vaque 1994)...

    Rolf D. Vinebrookeet al. Trophic Dependence of Ecosystem Resistance and Species Compensation in...

    • ...However, whereas experimental manipulations of crustacean zooplankton generally resulted in clear predation-mediated effects on planktonic protists, changes in bacterial biomass have only rarely been detected (Pace & Funke, 1991; Wickham, 1998; Adrian, Wickham & Butler, 2001) and studies in oligo- to mesotrophic lakes generated somewhat conflicting results...
    • ...Strong top–down control of planktonic bacteria by Daphnia seems to prevail when they achieve higher densities in meso- to eutrophic lakes and ponds whereas comparable studies in more oligotrophic systems with lower Daphnia densities revealed no effect or only weak effects on bacterioplankton (Pace & Funke, 1991; Brett et al., 1994)...
    • ...The regulation of bacterioplankton seems to function quite differently, judged from the weak effects of an altered grazer community on bacteria in enclosure experiments (Pace & Funke, 1991; Wickham, 1998; Adrian et al., 2001) and whole lake studies (Pace & Cole, 1996)...
    • ...Weak food web effects on planktonic bacteria have been interpreted as truncation of the trophic cascade at the level of protozoans (Pace & Funke, 1991; Wickham, 1998)...

    ECKART Z OLLNERet al. Cascading predation effects of Daphnia and copepods on microbial food ...

    • ...tion of the food web of the environment [11, 12, 24, 30, 42]...
    • ...nant zooplankton taxa in the Alte Donau, such as Halteria sp., Strobilidium sp., Keratella cochlearis, Bosmina sp., and Daphnia ssp., have all been shown to consume HNAN (unpublished data, [8, 18, 24])...

    C. Wieltschniget al. Weak Coupling between Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates and Bacteria in a ...

    • ...Because macrozooplankton feed not only on algae but also on a wide range of organisms, including bacteria and protozoans (Hessen et al. 1986; Sanders and Porter 1990; Wickham et al. 1993; Pace and Vaqué 1994), they play a key role in linking the microbial loop to the grazing chain (Porter et al. 1979; Carrick et al. 1991; Jürgens 1994)...
    • ...A number of studies have examined the grazing effects of macrozooplankton on bacteria (Güde 1988; Jürgens 1994), flagellated protozoans (Riemann 1985; Pace and Funke 1991), ciliated protozoans (Pace and Funke 1991; Wickham and Gilbert 1991), and rotifers (Gilbert 1988; Pace and Vaqué 1994)...

    Takehito Yoshidaet al. Contrasting effects of a cladoceran ( Daphnia galeata ) and a calanoid...

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