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A Pre-Performance Routine to Alleviate Choking in "Choking-Susceptible" Athletes

A Pre-Performance Routine to Alleviate Choking in "Choking-Susceptible" Athletes,Christopher Mesagno,Daryl Marchant,Tony Morris

A Pre-Performance Routine to Alleviate Choking in "Choking-Susceptible" Athletes   (Citations: 6)
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"Choking under pressure" is a maladaptive response to performance pressure whereby choking models have been identified, yet, theory-matched interventions have not empirically tested. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether a prep- erformance routine (PPR) could reduce choking effects, based on the distraction model of choking. Three "choking-susceptible", experienced participants were pur- posively sampled, from 88 participants, to complete ten-pin bowling deliveries in a single-case A1-B1-A2-B2 design (A phases = "low-pressure"; B phases = "high-pres- sure"), with an interview following the single-case design. Participants experienced "choking" in the B1 phase, which the interviews indicated was partially due to an increase in self-awareness (S-A). During the B2 phase, improved accuracy occurred when using the personalized PPR and, qualitatively, positive psychological outcomes included reduced S-A and decreased conscious processing. Using the personalized PPR produced adaptive and relevant, task-focused attention. Athletes who react adaptively to pressure can be described as psychologically resilient, whereas athletes who exhibit maladaptive responses to pressure may
Published in 2008.
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    • ...The reversal design was used in six studies with the A-B-A-B variation appearing four times (eg, Anderson & Kirkpatrick, 2002; Messagno, Marchant, & Morris, 2008, 2009; Ward, Smith, & Sharp, 1997), and the A-B-A variation appearing twice (eg, Pates, Maynard, & Westbury, 2001; Polaha, Allen, & Studley, 2004)...

    Jamie B. Barkeret al. A Review of Single-Case Research in Sport Psychology 1997–2012: Resear...

    • ...To illustrate the viability of mixed methods in sport psychology research, Mesagno, Marchant, and Morris (2008, 2009) purposively sampled choking-susceptible (ie, more likely to experience choking) participants using psychological inventories that measured self-consciousness, trait anxiety, and coping styles as predictors...

    Christopher Mesagnoet al. Characteristics of Polar Opposites: An Exploratory Investigation of Ch...

    • ...In experts such explicit conscious attention to, or even control of, subsequent steps of a skill may interfere with normal task execution hereby affecting performance (for more detailed discussions of the precise mechanisms see Beilock & Carr, 2001; Masters, 1992; Mesagno, Marchant, & Morris, 2008Marchant, & Morris, 2009; Wilson, 2008; Wilson, Chattington, Marple-Horvat, & Smith, 2007; for a more extensive discussion of the difference between the two hypotheses see Jackson et al, 2006)...

    Raôul R. D. Oudejanset al. Thoughts and attention of athletes under pressure: skill-focus or perf...

    • ...The literature has also offered a Pre Performance Routine as a possible intervention to prevent choking in skilled performers (Mesagno, Marchant, & Morris, 2008)...

    Denise M. Hillet al. Choking in sport: a review

    • ...In particular it has been suggested that they prescribe an attentional focus (Boutcher, 1992; Czech et al, 2004; Harle & Vickers, 2001); reduce the impact of distractions (Boutcher & Crews, 1987; Moore & Stevenson, 1994; Weinberg, 1988); act as a trigger for well learnt movement patterns (Boutcher & Crews, 1987; Moran, 1996); divert attention from task irrelevant thoughts to task relevant thoughts (Gould & Udry, 1994; Maynard, 1998); improve concentration (Foster et al, 2006; Holder, 2003); enhance the recall of physiological and psychological states (Marlow et al, 1998); help performers achieve behavioural and temporal consistency in their performance (Wrisberg & Pein, 1992); prevent performers focusing on the mechanics of their skills and the resulting unravelling of automaticity (Beilock & Carr, 2001; Beilock, Carr, MacMahon, & Starkes, 2002); improve performance under pressure (Mesagno, Marchant, & Morris, 2008); or allow performers to evaluate conditions and calibrate their responses (Schack, 1997)...

    Stewart Cotterill. Pre-performance routines in sport: current understanding and future di...

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