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Multiple learning modes in the development of performance on a rule-based category-learning task

Multiple learning modes in the development of performance on a rule-based category-learning task,10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.12.011,Neuropsycholog

Multiple learning modes in the development of performance on a rule-based category-learning task   (Citations: 10)
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Behavioral and neuropsychological data suggest that multiple systems are involved in category-learning. In this paper, the existence and the development of multiple modes of learning of a rule-based category structure was examined, and features of different learning processes were identified. Data were obtained in a cross-sectional study by Raijmakers et al. [Raijmakers, M. E. J., Dolan, C. V., & Molenaar, P. C. M. (2001). Finite mixture distribution models of simple discrimination learning. Memory and Cognition, 29, 659–677], in which subjects aged 4–20 years carried out a rule-based category-learning task. Learning models were employed to investigate the development of the learning processes in the sample. The results support the hypothesis of two distinct learning modes, rather than a single general mode of learning with a continuum of appearances. One mode represents sudden rational learning by means of hypothesis testing. In the second, slow learning mode, learning also occurs suddenly as opposed to incrementally. The probability of rational learning increases with age, and seems to be related to dimension preference in the younger age groups. However, the finding of distinct learning modes does not necessarily imply that distinct learning systems are involved. Implications for the interpretation and clinical use of tasks with a category-learning component, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST [Heaton, R. K., Chelune, G. J., Talley, J. L., Kay, G. G., & Curtis, G. (Eds.). (1993). Wisconsin card sorting test manual: Revised and expanded. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources]), are discussed.
Journal: Neuropsychologia , vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 2079-2091, 2006
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    • ...In agreement with the results of human participants (4‐20 years of age) in [1] the model revealed two distinct learning modes in the learning process: (1) a discontinuous rational learning process by means of hypothesis testing; and (2) a slow, yet discontinuous learning process...
    • ...These findings are extended by a more detailed investigation of the aforementioned learning modes [1]...
    • ...That is, the difference in number of trials to criterion between matching and non-matching networks is greater for child networks than for adult networks (a similar effect is reported in [1])...
    • ...Estimated parameters were very similar to the parameter estimates in [1]...
    • ...For child networks this results in a mixture of learning modes as found in the empirical study [1]...

    Maartje E. J. Raijmakerset al. An ART neural network model of discrimination shift learning

    • ...In addition, participants may adopt different learning strategies when searching for a correct sorting rule (eg, Schmittmann, Visser, & Raijmakers, 2006)...

    Mariëtte Huizingaet al. Age-Group Differences in Set-Switching and Set-Maintenance on the Wisc...

    • ...<{[SECTION]}>process [1]. A neural network (adapted from [2]) was developed...
    • ...In a recent study [1] these findings are extended by a more detailed investigation of the proposed learning modes...
    • ...Our purpose is to explore the findings reported in [1] using a neural network architecture capable of learning a DL task...
    • ...We seek to develop a neural network model that can replicate the empirical results on a DL task described in [1]...
    • ...Existence of two modes of learning is assessed by fitting hidden Markov models to the trial-by-trial data produced by the network (i.e. following [1]; see also [11] for method)...
    • ...As mentioned in the introduction, trial-by-trial data of human participants (ages 4‐20) on a DSL task were analyzed by fitting mathematical learning models in [1]...
    • ...The block arrow represents the relation between the two models. (Adapted from [1])...
    • ...That is, the difference in number of trials to criterion between matching and non-matching networks is greater for child networks than for adult networks (a similar effect is reported in [1])...
    • ...For child networks this results in a mixture of learning modes as found in the empirical study [1]...

    Arjan Berkeljonet al. An ART neural network model of discrimination learning

    • ...<{[SECTION]}>[5]. The results revealed the existence of different shift learning...
    • ...Different subgroups have been found in children and adults learning an initial discrimination [3]‐[5], [14]...
    • ...The learning processes of the adult participants and of a proportion of children, that increased with age, were well described by a model of fast learning by means of hypothesis testing [5]...
    • ...The learning process in the remaining participants was best described by a model of slow, sudden learning, which can be interpreted as a an inefficient form of hypothesis testing, or, alternatively, as a specific type of implicit learning [5]...
    • ...The present study builds forth on the analysis of the initial learning phase described in [5]...
    • ...The final sample consisted of 230 participants (for detailed information on selection criteria see [5])...
    • ...For participants, who did not reach the criterion during 48 trials, the task was terminated (for detailed information see [4], [5])...

    Verena D. Schmittmannet al. Development of reversal shift learning. An individual differences anal...

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