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GLOGER'S RULE, FEATHER-DEGRADING BACTERIA, AND COLOR VARIATION AMONG SONG SPARROWS

GLOGER'S RULE, FEATHER-DEGRADING BACTERIA, AND COLOR VARIATION AMONG SONG SPARROWS,10.1650/7383,Condor,EDWARD H. BURTT JR,Jann M. Ichida

GLOGER'S RULE, FEATHER-DEGRADING BACTERIA, AND COLOR VARIATION AMONG SONG SPARROWS   (Citations: 43)
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Feathers tend to be darkly colored in hab- itats where relative humidity is high and pale where it is low. We suggest that this correlation, known as Glo- ger's rule, results, in part, from selection for dark feath- ers that are more resistant than light feathers to bac- terial degradation, which is a severe problem in humid habitats where bacteria thrive and a lesser problem in arid habitats. In May and June 2000-2002 we sampled feather-degrading bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis) from the plumage of Song Sparrows (Melospiza mel- odia) in southeastern Arizona and northwestern Wash- ington. Under standardized laboratory conditions, feather-degrading bacteria from the plumage of spar- rows in the humid Northwest degraded feathers more rapidly and more completely than feather-degrading bacteria from sparrows of the arid Southwest. The dif- ferences in feather-degrading bacteria and in relative humidity produce a difference in the intensity of se- lection, which in turn produces the difference in color described in Gloger's rule.
Journal: Condor , vol. 106, no. 3, 2004
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    • ...As bacterial communities differ between habitats depending on soil parameters, it has been suggested that the structure of bacterial assemblages in plumage is habitat dependent, and that this might result in differences even between individuals of the same bird species [4, 24, 27]...
    • ...The most plausible reason for this was the remarkably higher mean ambient temperature and total precipitation in the early spring of 2008 (according to the Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute), which probably favored bacterial growth [4, 23, 24]...

    Pauli Saaget al. Plumage Bacterial Assemblages in a Breeding Wild Passerine: Relationsh...

    • ...It has been suggested, for instance, that at colder climates/latitudes, animals have shorter appendages (Allen’s rule; Allen, 1877; Serrat et al., 2008) lighter coloration (Gloger’s rule; Gloger, 1833; Burtt & Ichida, 2004) and larger body sizes (Bergmann’s rule; Bergmann, 1847; Daufresne et al., 2009)...

    Rodrigo Scheihinget al. Viability selection on body size in a non-marine ostracod

    • ...However, the relationship with aquatic habitat could be explained by water aVecting bacterial and fungal growth (e.g., Burtt and Ichida 2004; Shawkey et al. 2003)...

    Anders Pape Mølleret al. Ectoparasites, uropygial glands and hatching success in birds

    • ...Recent studies, however, suggested that this convergence results from increases in melanin deposition due to selection caused by keratin-degrading bacteria (Burtt and Ichida 1999, 2004; Goldstein et al. 2004), which cause more damage in the tidal marsh than bacteria in less humid or less saline environments (Peele et al. 2009)...

    A. Liuet al. Interactions between sexual and natural selection on the evolution of ...

    • ...Recent studies, however, suggested that this convergence results from increases in melanin deposition due to selection caused by keratin-degrading bacteria (Burtt and Ichida 1999, 2004; Goldstein et al. 2004), which cause more damage in the tidal marsh than bacteria in less humid or less saline environments (Peele et al. 2009)...

    Brian J. Olsenet al. Interactions between sexual and natural selection on the evolution of ...

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