Problems of coordination in swimming: a motor learning approach

Problems of coordination in swimming: a motor learning approach,KURT WILKE

Problems of coordination in swimming: a motor learning approach  
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WILKE K. Problems of coordination in swimming: a motor learning approach. Kinesiology, Vol. 2. No. 1, pp. 9-18, 1997. The refinement processes nt the movement regulation (motor control) is considered to he a larger inner reserve than the domain of conditioning. In sports the refinement concerns two essentials of movements motor skills and coordination abilities. A motor skill like the technique of backstroke of no-touch-turn is defined as the result of exercising, which didactically differs from motor learning and conditioning. The characteristics of a skill are economy, constancy and stability. Problems of skilling arise from isolated and slackened exercises as well as from cluttered repetitions. A methodology to avoid these problems is explained. Physical changes, together with the necessity for stroke corrections, for the adaptation to new rules and to the nascent swimming speed, renders it necessary to maintain continuously appropriate coordination adjustments. A motor coordination ability is the sensori motor prerequisite for a whole category of movements; it contains the transferable structures of these movements. In order to improve coordination abilities one approach deals with the training of motor analysers, another with the training of motor commands. Even an elite swimmer will rarely reach the perfection of his defferentiation ability for a longer period. New tasks, conditions, situations have to challenge permanently the sensory- motor system in order to adjust the mastered skills. Since the eighties movement technique has become an important factor of swimming performance. Actually the refinement of motor control in sports is generally considered as the larger inner reserve than the domain of physical conditioning. Improved motor control can increase the efficiency of the movement process, i.e. the same energy expenditure produces a higher locomotion velocity or the same velocity needs less energy (measured through physiological parameters). This is surely relevant to swimming because the water resistance increases squarely with the accelerated speed of the swimmer's body. So any deviation from the biomechanical optimum or any stroke error inadequacy will affect the athlete's overall performance. Additionally the charge of one small deviation will be multiplied by the quantity of movement repetitions per distance. This could result in a gross deficiency when swimming a race. According to this knowledge the process of acquiring a particular swimming technique consists of different stages of
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