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The late Quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel

The late Quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel,10.1016/j.yqres.2004.09.004,Quaternary Research,N. Hazan,M. Stein,A

The late Quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel   (Citations: 23)
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The freshwater Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) and the hypersaline Dead Sea are remnant lakes, evolved from ancient water bodies that filled the tectonic depressions along the Dead Sea Transform (DST) during the Neogene–Quartenary periods. We reconstructed the limnological history (level and composition) of Lake Kinneret during the past ∼40,000 years and compared it with the history of the contemporaneous Lake Lisan from the aspect of the regional and global climate history. The lake level reconstruction was achieved through a chronological and sedimentological investigation of exposed sedimentary sections in the Kinnarot basin trenches and cores drilled at the Ohalo II archeological site. Shoreline chronology was established by radiocarbon dating of organic remains and of Melanopsis shells.The major changes in Lake Kinneret level were synchronous with those of the southern Lake Lisan. Both lakes dropped significantly ∼42,000, ∼30,000, 23,800, and 13,000 yr ago and rose ∼39,000, 26,000, 5000, and 1600 yr ago. Between 26,000 and 24,000 yr ago, the lakes merged into a unified water body and lake level achieved its maximum stand of ∼170 m below mean sea level (m bsl). Nevertheless, the fresh and saline water properties of Lake Kinneret and Lake Lisan, respectively, have been preserved throughout the 40,000 years studied. Calcium carbonate was always deposited as calcite in Lake Kinneret and as aragonite in Lake Lisan–Dead Sea, indicating that the Dead Sea brine (which supports aragonite production) never reached or affected Lake Kinneret, even during the period of lake high stand and convergence. The synchronous level fluctuation of lakes Kinneret, Lisan, and the Holocene Dead Sea is consistent with the dominance of the Atlantic–Mediterranean rain system on the catchment of the basin and the regional hydrology. The major drops in Lake Kinneret–Lisan levels coincide with the timing of cold spells in the North Atlantic that caused a shut down of rains in the East Mediterranean and the lakes drainage area.
Journal: Quaternary Research - QUATERNARY RES , vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 60-77, 2005
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    • ...Finally, regional paleoclimate records offer insight into the paleoenvironment of sequence II. There is reliable evidence for a regional episode of great aridity circa 4 ka (e.g., Cullen et al., 2000), which correlates with the largest Holocene drops in the level of the Dead Sea (e.g., Klinger et al., 2003; Bookman et al., 2004) and of Lake Tiberias (e.g., Hazan et al., 2005)...

    Mathieu Daeronet al. 12,000YearLong Record of 10 to 13 Paleoearthquakes on the Yammouneh Fa...

    • ...Ben-Avraham et al. 1990; Garfunkel and Ben-Avraham 2001; Marco et al. 2003; Hazan et al. 2004)...
    • ...3. The Galei Kinneret site (location in Figure 2 and description of site in Figure 6): The archaeological excavations at the site, situated on the western shore of Lake Kinneret at Tiberias between the elevations of 208 and 212 m bsl, revealed Roman, Byzantine, and Early Arabic buildings, all buried by alluvium and lake sediments (Hazan et al. 2004)...
    • ...between AD 638 and 750 (~1300 BP) (Marco et al. 2003; Hazan et al. 2004)...
    • ...B - Lacustrine beach ridge and Melanopsis (arrow) at the top of a sedimentary section, which buried an Ummayad column at the right, the same column that is on the left side of (A) (Hazan et al. 2004)...

    Lilach Levet al. THE FEASIBILITY OF USING MELANOPSIS SHELLS AS RADIOCARBON CHRONOMETERS...

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