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Misinformation Effects in Eyewitness Memory: The Presence and Absence of Memory Impairment as a Function of Warning and Misinformation Accessibility

Misinformation Effects in Eyewitness Memory: The Presence and Absence of Memory Impairment as a Function of Warning and Misinformation Accessibility,1

Misinformation Effects in Eyewitness Memory: The Presence and Absence of Memory Impairment as a Function of Warning and Misinformation Accessibility   (Citations: 16)
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The authors report 5 experiments investigating how exposure to misleading postevent information affects people's ability to remember details from a witnessed event. In each experiment the authors tested memory using the modified opposition test, which was designed to isolate retrieval-blocking effects. The findings indicate that retrieval blocking occurs regardless of whether the misleading information is presented before or after the witnessed event. In addition, when people are warned immediately about the presence of misleading information, they can counteract retrieval-blocking effects but only if the misinformation is relatively low in accessibility. The authors discuss the findings in terms of the retrieval-blocking hypothesis and a hypothetical suppression mechanism that can counteract retrieval-blocking effects in some circumstances.
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    • ...Eakin, Schreiber, and Sergent-Marshall (2003) demonstrated that misinformation effects could be suppressed by explicit warnings, which foster strategic monitoring processes (cf...
    • ...Finally, in terms of dual processes, repetition will not only enhance automatic retrieval (as suggested by Eakin et al., 2003), but will usually lead to improved controlled memory processes as well, in particular improved source memory (e.g., Jacoby, 1999)...

    Ullrich K. H. Eckeret al. Correcting false information in memory: Manipulating the strength of m...

    • ... consequences of memory’s fallibility, researchers have investigated ways of reducing their impact, especially the distorting effects of postevent misinformation (e.g., a postevent narrative containing false details) on eyewitness memory (e.g., Chambers & Zaragoza, 2001; Christiaansen & Ochalek, 1983; Eakin, Schreiber, & Sergent–Marshall, 2003; Echterhoff, Hirst, & Hussy, 2005; Greene, Flynn, & Loftus, 1982; Wright, 1993; also ...
    • ...The third explanation for the tainted truth effect attributes it to differences in source monitoring (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993), or source “orientation” (Dodson et al., 2000)...
    • ...leading items from their memory reports (e.g., Chambers & Zaragoza, 2001; Echterhoff et al., 2005; also see Dodson et al., 2000)...
    • ...Warnings were thought to only serve the cause of better memory performance by mitigating the cost of the new information (e.g., Dodson et al., 2000; Loftus, 2005)...

    Gerald Echterhoffet al. Tainted Truth: Overcorrection for Misinformation Influence on Eyewitne...

    • ...Research on memory distortions shows that when subjects view an event and then are misled about aspects of that event only minutes later, their memory reports tend to change in line with the misleading suggestions (Eakin, Schreiber, & Sergent-Marshall, 2003; Loftus, Miller, & Burns, 1978; McCloskey & Zaragoza, 1985; see also Belli, Lindsay, Gales, & McCarthy, 1994)...

    Melanie K. T. Takarangiet al. Dear Diary, Is Plastic Better Than Paper? I Can't Remember: Comment on...

    • ... .’’). Presumably, the specific warning was effective because it enabled subjects to identify the misinformation (i.e., better than the general warning did) and also because it was given before the misinformation was presented, a factor that other studies have shown to be critical (Eakin, Schreiber, & Sergent-Marshall, 2003; Greene, Flynn, & Loftus, 1982)...

    Andrew C. Butleret al. Using Popular Films to Enhance Classroom Learning The Good, the Bad, a...

    • ...which the decision would have been made (Eakin, Schreiber, & Sergent-Marshall, 2003)...

    Michael N. Wakshull. How Cognitive Biases Affect Risk and Decision Analysis In Managers

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