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Natural process – Natural selection

Natural process – Natural selection,10.1016/j.bpc.2007.01.005,Biophysical Chemistry,Vivek Sharma,Arto Annila

Natural process – Natural selection   (Citations: 20)
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Life is supported by a myriad of chemical reactions. To describe the overall process we have formulated entropy for an open system undergoing chemical reactions. The entropy formula allows us to recognize various ways for the system to move towards more probable states. These correspond to the basic processes of life i.e. proliferation, differentiation, expansion, energy intake, adaptation and maturation. We propose that the rate of entropy production by various mechanisms is the fitness criterion of natural selection. The quest for more probable states results in organization of matter in functional hierarchies.
Journal: Biophysical Chemistry - BIOPHYS CHEM , vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 123-128, 2007
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    • ...The increase in the number of new molecular species capable of participating in the reaction set results in more ways to dissipate the free energy, and thus an increase, not a decrease, in entropy [28-30]...

    Yun Jianget al. The calculation of information and organismal complexity

    • ...However, recently it was shown, by a first-principle derivation that they are in fact one and the same law (Sharma and Annila, 2007)...
    • ...The argumentation is based on the recently derived equation of motion (Sharma and Annila, 2007) for natural processes (Kondepudi and Prigogine, 1998) that has also been linked with (Kaila and Annila, 2008) the principle of least action (Maupertuis, 1746) and with Gyarmati’s principle (Gyarmati, 1970; Lucia, 1995)...
    • ...The presented description is based on the thermodynamic entropy (Kaila and Annila, 2008; Sharma and Annila, 2007) rather than on the informational entropy (Shannon, 1948)...
    • ...Evolution as dispersal of energy is described by the overall rate of change in entropy (Sharma and Annila, 2007)...
    • ...Each of the resulting flows is proportional to the specific gradient (Sharma and Annila, 2007)...
    • ...It follows from this that energy will flow naturally along the steepest descents in the energy landscape, equivalent to the steepest ascents on the entropy manifold (Kaila and Annila, 2008; Sharma and Annila, 2007) to abolish differences most rapidly...
    • ...Thus it has been argued that the rate of entropy increase dS/dt >0 is the universal fitness criterion of natural selection (Sharma and Annila, 2007)...

    Arto Annilaet al. Natural hierarchy emerges from energy dispersal

    • ...This is a consequence, first, of the Second Law of thermodynamics in its non-equilibrium vicar—the need to maximize entropy production locally (e.g., Lorenz 2002; Sharma and Annila 2007), entraining, and explaining, the rapid work of growth made by a new system during its immaturity...

    Unknown. A Hierarchical Framework for Levels of Reality: Understanding Through ...

    • ...In this study, the diversity relations are examined from the fundamental principle of increasing entropy that was recently formulated as an equation of motion [35]...
    • ...Subsequently, many additional reactions redistribute the resulting base potential among diverse repositories of chemical energy (Figure 1). The overall energy transduction from the base production potential μ1 toward all other potentials μ j takes the direction of increasing entropy S [35]:...
    • ...The governing thermodynamic principle is exemplified by considering only one type of base constituents (atoms), but the result has been generalized for diverse base constituents [35]...
    • ...During the course of evolution, free energy is consumed and entropy increases at the rate [35]...
    • ...To satisfy the balance equation, the population N j of species j changes at the rate [35],...
    • ...Accordingly, there is no analytical form for the species-area relationship because it results from nonintegrable and nondeterministic processes [35]...
    • ...The new insight to biotic systems is provided by the 2nd law of thermodynamics given as the equation of motion [35, 37]...

    Peter Wurtzet al. Roots of diversity relations

    • ...According to the self-similar formalism P = Pj, is a product of probabilities so that each Pj is associated with a subsystem composed of entities j in numbers Nj (for the derivation see references [6,8]):...
    • ...is proportional to the corresponding motive force by a conductance (production capacity) jk > 0 to satisfy the continuity vj = –vk between the density j and diverse densities k [6,49]...
    • ...The equation of motion for an evolving economy (Equation 3.3) can be rewritten using the definition of entropy S = kBlnP as the law of increasing entropy [6,8]:  ...
    • ...The maximum entropy state is characterized by a distribution of entities without mutual density differences [6] 0 exp ...
    • ...In terms of our statistical physics formulation of evolutionary theory those mechanisms that channel most of the energy are naturally selected through the flows [1,6,7,69]...

    Arto Annila. Economies Evolve by Energy Dispersal

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