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Abscisic acid in the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination and enhancement of its catabolism by gibberellin

Abscisic acid in the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination and enhancement of its catabolism by gibberellin,Takeru Gonai,Shusuke Kawahara,Makot

Abscisic acid in the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination and enhancement of its catabolism by gibberellin   (Citations: 24)
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Germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Grand Rapids') seeds was inhibited at high tem- peratures (thermoinhibition). Thermoinhibition at 28 ∞C was prevented by the application of fluri- done, an inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynth- esis. At 33 ∞C, the sensitivity of the seeds to ABA increased, and fluridone on its own was no longer effective. However, a combined application of fluri- done and gibberellic acid (GA3) was able to restore the germination. Exogenous GA3 lowered endogen- ous ABA content in the seeds, enhancing catabo- lism of ABA and export of the catabolites from the intact seeds. The fluridone application also decreased the ABA content. Consequently, the combined application of fluridone and GA3 decreased the ABA content to a sufficiently low level to allow germination at 33 ∞C. There was no significant temperature-dependent change in endo- genous GA1 contents. It is concluded that ABA is an important factor in the regulation of thermoinhi- bition of lettuce seed germination, and that GA affects the temperature responsiveness of the seeds through ABA metabolism.
Published in 2004.
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    • ...Physiologically, the maximum germination temperature of lettuce seeds appears to be determined primarily through the antagonistic interactions of gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) (Gonai et al. 2004; Toh et al. 2008) and the regulation of their synthesis and degradation by phytochrome (Sawada et al. 2008a, b; Seo et al. 2006)...
    • ...Gibberellins promote ABA catabolism and thus increase the maximum temperature of lettuce seed germination (Gonai et al. 2004)...
    • ... out as being responsible for the primary effect of the significantly increased maximum germination temperature because they segregate independently of Htg6.1 (Table 1). These findings strongly point to LsNCED4 as a key determinant of thermoinhibition in lettuce, consistent with its elevated expression and a higher ABA content in thermoinhibited seeds (Fig. 6; Argyris et al. 2008b) and with similar results for NCED genes in Arabidopsis (Gonai ...

    Jason ArgyrisMariaet al. A gene encoding an abscisic acid biosynthetic enzyme ( LsNCED4 ) collo...

    • ...In particular, temperature is a primary factor regulating seed germination in this species (Gonai et al. 2004; Sung et al. 2008)...
    • ...For example, exposure to ABA can decrease the maximum germination temperature, whereas exposure to GA and ethylene can increase it (Reynolds and Thompson 1973; Saini et al. 1989; Dutta and Bradford 1994; Gonai et al. 2004; Argyris et al. 2008a)...
    • ...Reciprocal regulation of expression of ABA versus GA and ethylene biosynthetic genes in lettuce seed germination has been reported (Fig. 8; Gonai et al. 2004; Argyris et al. 2008a; Sawada et al. 2008a, b). The genetic evidence presented here suggests that regulation of LsNCED4 expression and therefore of ABA levels may be a primary temperaturesensing mechanism, at least in these genetic backgrounds, which then triggers subsequent gene ...
    • ...For example, ABA enhances the catabolism of GA and can inhibit the expression of GA biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis and lettuce seeds (Gonai et al. 2004; Seo et al. 2006; Zentella et al. 2007; Sawada et al. 2008b; Toh et al. 2008)...
    • ...Gonai et al. (2004) reported that applications of fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) and GA together decreased the ABA content of lettuce seeds to a sufficiently low level to permit germination at 33C in the dark...
    • ...In lettuce seeds, the active phytochrome (Pfr) requirement for germination increases as the temperature increases (Fielding et al. 1992; Kristie and Fielding 1994) and the seeds become more sensitive to inhibition by ABA (Roth-Bejerano et al. 1999; Gonai et al. 2004)...

    Andrés R. Schwemberet al. A genetic locus and gene expression patterns associated with the primi...

    • ...These studies with cereals and recent investigations with Arabidopsis thaliana and other species have confirmed that the balance of ABA and GA action plays a critical role in regulating seed germination and dormancy and that these hormones can have reciprocal effects on their respective biosynthesis and inactivation pathways (Gonai et al., 2004; Cadman et al., 2006; Finch-Savage and Leubner-Metzger, 2006; Seo et al., 2006; Finch-Savage et ...
    • ...The repressive effects of high temperature can also be accounted for by this scenario, as ABA contents (Gonai et al., 2004; Benech-Arnold et al., 2006) and water potential thresholds (Alvarado and Bradford, 2002) are higher in seeds which imbibe at supra-optimal temperatures...

    Kent J. Bradfordet al. Quantifying the sensitivity of barley seed germination to oxygen, absc...

    • ...Various studies indicated that profound changes in endogenous levels of the growth regulators caused by high temperature stress, increase in the inhibitors (Gonai et al. 2004) and decrease in the stimulators (Corbineau et al. 1993) greatly inhibit...

    Kursat Cavusogluet al. Comparative effects of some plant growth regulators on the germination...

    • ...environmental stresses such as cold (Chandler and Robertson 1994), high temperature (Gonai et al. 2004), salinity (Jia et al. 2002) and drought (Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki 2000)...

    Kursat Cavusogluet al. Comparison of antagonisms between abscisic acid and various growth sti...

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