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A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing

A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing,10.1016/S0167-8655(02)00402-6,Pattern Recognition Letters,Da-chun Wu,Wen-hsiang Tsai

A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing   (Citations: 141)
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A new and efficient steganographic method for embedding secret messages into a gray-valued cover image is pro- posed. In the process of embedding a secret message, a cover image is partitioned into non-overlapping blocks of two consecutive pixels. A difference value is calculated from the values of the two pixels in each block. All possible difference values are classified into a number of ranges. The selection of the range intervals is based on the characteristics of human visions sensitivity to gray value variations from smoothness to contrast. The difference value then is replaced by a new value to embed the value of a sub-stream of the secret message. The number of bits which can be embedded in a pixel pair is decided by the width of the range that the difference value belongs to. The method is designed in such a way that the modification is never out of the range interval. This method provides an easy way to produce a more im- perceptible result than those yielded by simple least-significant-bit replacement methods. The embedded secret message can be extracted from the resulting stego-image without referencing the original cover image. Moreover, a pseudo- random mechanism may be used to achieve secrecy protection. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed method. Dual statistics attacks were also conducted to collect related data to show the security of the method. 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Journal: Pattern Recognition Letters - PRL , vol. 24, no. 9-10, pp. 1613-1626, 2003
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    • ...Wu and Tsai (2003) presented a data hiding method in the spatial domain based on pixel value differencing...

    Roli Bansalet al. Securing Fingerprint Images Using PSO-Based Wavelet Domain Watermarkin...

    • ...Based on the embedding domains, image steganographic algorithms can be classified into two types, that is those embedding in the spatial domain, such as LSB (Least Significant Bit) based [1, 20] approaches and PVD-based [22, 25] approaches, and those embedding in the transform domain, such as F5 [21] and outguess [12]...
    • ...In the original PVD scheme proposed by Wu and Tsai [22], the procedure of data embedding is shown as follows...
    • ...Based on the characteristics of HVS (human visual system), the original PVD approaches [22] can embed more secret bits into an image with fewer visual artifacts...
    • ...– Step 2 The resulting image is rearranged as a row vector running through all the rows in a raster scanning manner as it did in the paper [22]...
    • ...In this Section, we present some experimental results to show the effectiveness of our proposed method compared with the existing PVD-based approaches as described in Section 2.1, including the original PVD scheme [22], the improved version of PVD (IPVD [25]), the modified PVD scheme combing with LSB approach (PVD-LSB [23]) and its enhanced version called Adaptive-Edge [24] for short...
    • ...In [25], Zhang and Wang showed that the original PVD scheme [22] will inevitably introduce some undesired steps in the histogram of the differences between two continuous pixels in each embedding unit due to its fixed division of embedding units and its fixed quantization steps...

    Weiqi Luoet al. A more secure steganography based on adaptive pixel-value differencing...

    • ...Despite performing better than other approaches [9]–[12], the LSB approach is easily detected by some malicious programs[19]–[21] and does not consider human vision[13]–[16]...
    • ...To achieve high embedding capacity, Wu and Tsai developed a pixel-value differencing (PVD) method[13], in which the pixel difference between two neighboring pixels are used to estimate how many bits will be embedded...

    Hung-Min Sunet al. Anti-Forensics with Steganographic Data Embedding in Digital Images

    • ...Pixel-value differencing data hiding technique (PVD) proposed by Wu and Tsai in [5] can hide a large amount of secret bits into a still image by modifying the difference values between pairs of adjacent pixels...

    Awad Kh. Al-Asmariet al. Wavelet-pixel value differencing technique for digital images data hid...

    • ...Early proposals are steganographic method which uses the difference value between two neighbor pixels to determine the number of secret bits to be embedded [4], dithering to get image information that can be used by adaptive steganographic algorithms, the “pixel-value differencing” (PVD) and LSB replacement method [5], the defining of texture in order to detect regions with textures not homogeneous and also an adaptive LSB steganographic ...

    K. Pramithaet al. Image steganography using mod-4 embedding algorithm based on image con...

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