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Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus

Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus,10.1099/mic.0.032540-0,Microbiology-sgm,A. M. Mitchell,G. A. Strobel,E. Moor

Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus   (Citations: 20)
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Journal: Microbiology-sgm , vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 270-277, 2010
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    • ...This is due mainly to their statistical ease for study and creative potential to produce novel compounds which may be used in biotechnological, industrial and medical applications (Strobel et al. 2003; Zhigiang 2005; Kharkwal et al. 2008; Huang et al. 2008; Mitchell et al. 2008, 2009 ;K aewchai et al.2009 ;A ly et al. 2010 ;X u et al.2010)...

    Witoon Purahonget al. Effects of fungal endophytes on grass and non-grass litter decompositi...

    • ...Production of volatile antimicrobial compounds by endophytic Muscodor including Muscodor albus (Ezra et al. 2004), Muscodor crispans (Mitchell et al. 2008, 2010 )a ndMuscodor yucatanensis (Macias-Rubalcava et al. 2010) in cultures has been reported in recent years...

    H. J. Suet al. Production of volatile substances by rhizomorphs of Marasmius criniseq...

    • ...Muscodor is an endophytic fungal genus that is known from certain tropical tree and vine species in Central/South America, and South Eastern Asia and Australia (Worapong et al., 2001; Strobel et al., 2001; Daisy et al., 2002; Ezra et al., 2004a; Atmosukarto et al., 2005)...
    • ...is that each produces one or more VOCs that have biological activity (Strobel et al., 2001; Ezra et al., 2004a)...
    • ...In the case of Muscodor vitigenus the bioactive compound is naphthalene and the fungus has insectrepellent activity, whereas in the case of M. albus and Muscodor roseus a multitude of VOCs have antibiotic properties (Strobel et al., 2001; Worapong et al., 2002)...
    • ...Plant samples (given a numerical designation) were exposed to the VOCs of M. albus strain CZ-620 (Strobel et al., 2001) as a means to facilitate, by selective pressure, the isolation of any new isolate of M. albus or related organisms (Ezra et al., 2004a; Atmosukarto et al., 2005)...
    • ...One fungus, designated E-6, was recovered from G. ulmifolia under these selective culture conditions and was initially shown to produce antibiotically active VOCs by virtue of the bioassay test (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...A relatively simple bioassay test system was devised that allowed only for VOCs from the fungus being the active agents for any microbial inhibition being examined, as previously described (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...The method used to analyse the gases in the air space above the 7-day old culture of the M. albus mycelium growing in Petri plates was similar to that used for the original isolate of M. albus, strain CZ-620 (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...M. albus E-6 produced at least 22 VOCs and 9 of these could be positively identified on the basis of a GC/MS comparison with authentic standards obtained from commercial sources as well as organic synthesis (Table 1) (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...Of the compounds produced by this organism the most abundant was propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, followed by propanoic acid, 2-methyl-methyl ester and 1 butanol, 2-methyl (Table 1). Although these compounds have been detected in M. albus CZ-620, they are present in relatively low abundance (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...Interestingly, none of the other isolates of M. albus produce the butanoic or butenal derivatives as does E-6, making it unique in this respect (Table 1) (Strobel et al., 2001; Atmosukarto et al., 2005; Ezra et al., 2004a)...
    • ...When grown for 4–7 days at 23 uC on PDA, M. albus E-6 had maximum lethality to other fungi and bacteria when placed in the bioassay Petri plate test system (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...Similarily, isolate CZ-620 kills E. coli, but does not kill Bacillus spp. (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...Furthermore, S. sclerotiorum is another test organism that is extremely sensitive to M. albus isolate CZ- 620 (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...M. albus E-6 can be considered a true endophytic micro-organism, as is M. albus CZ-620 (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...It is now becoming clear that Muscodor is more widely distributed than originally supposed (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...It seems as if M. albus E-6 is behaving in a comparable manner to its relatives on other continents (Ezra et al., 2004a; Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...That is, it makes antibiotic volatiles but the composition of these gases is unique to this organism (Table 1). Only a few of these compounds were acquired to confirm compound identity, but not enough were available to carry out inhibition studies with the compounds themselves (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...Nevertheless, the spectrum of biological activity is generally unique to this isolate since both representative Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, were killed on exposure to the VOCs and reduced activity was seen against organisms such as R. solani and S. sclerotiorum (Strobel et al., 2001)(Table 2)...

    Gary A. Strobelet al. Muscodor albus E-6, an endophyte of Guazuma ulmifolia making volatile ...

    • ...Several years ago, an unusual endophytic fungus was isolated from Cinnamomum zeylanicum, growing in a rainforest in Honduras (Strobel et al., 2001; Worapong et al., 2001)...
    • ...While VOC-producing fungi have been isolated and studied chemically in the past 30‐40 years, none have been found that have such a comprehensive spectrum of antimicrobial activity as that of M. albus (Strobel et al., 2001; McAfee & Taylor, 1999)...
    • ...The plant samples were treated with 70% ethanol before excising the internal plant tissues and placing them onto the other three quadrants of each plate, containing water agar (Strobel et al., 2001; Worapong et al., 2001)...
    • ...The growth of the yeast and bacteria was judged visually as described by Strobel et al. (2001)...
    • ...At the end of the assay, the viability of the each test fungus and bacterium was evaluated by transferring a portion of the original inoculum plug, or an area of the plate that had been streaked, on to a fresh plate of PDA and observing any growth developing within 2‐3 days (Strobel et al., 2001)...
    • ...The gases in the air space above the M. albus isolate mycelium growing in Petri plates were analysed as described previously (Strobel et al., 2001; Ezra & Strobel, 2003)...
    • ...There was 96‐99% sequence identity of these isolates to the original isolate of M. albus, CZ-620, (Table 2; sequence alignment available as supplementary data with the online version of the paper at http://mic.sgmjournals.org), making a very tight and clustered relationship among the ITS-5?8S rDNAs among all of the organisms whose sequences are now on deposit at the GenBank listed as M. albus (Strobel et al., 2001; Worapong et al., 2001; ...
    • ...Final identification of the VOCs was done using authentic compounds obtained commercially and synthesized (Strobel et al., 2001; Daisy et al., 2002b)...
    • ... naphthalene or naphthalene, 1,19-oxybis- but does produce two different nonanones, ethanol and acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester and many esters which were not detected in the new M. albus isolates (Table 3). Also, in the most recent analysis of the original M. albus (CZ-620) VOCs, no bulnecene was detected, for unknown reasons, but the unknown compound of mass 204 Da appearing at ~37‐38 min, was detectable in the VOCs of this isolate (Strobel ...
    • ... ester and many esters which were not detected in the new M. albus isolates (Table 3). Also, in the most recent analysis of the original M. albus (CZ-620) VOCs, no bulnecene was detected, for unknown reasons, but the unknown compound of mass 204 Da appearing at ~37‐38 min, was detectable in the VOCs of this isolate (Strobel et al., 2001) (Table 3). A number of other volatiles found in the original analysis of the gases of this fungus (Strobel ...
    • ...Previously, it had been established that the main VOCs responsible for the inhibitory activity of M. albus isolate CZ-620 were esters, alcohols and acids (Strobel et al., 2001)...

    David Ezraet al. New endophytic isolates of Muscodor albus, a volatile-antibiotic-produ...

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