Upper Mannville Coals and their Equivalents A More Promising CBM Target?

Upper Mannville Coals and their Equivalents A More Promising CBM Target?,Garth Sloan,Brian McKinstry

Upper Mannville Coals and their Equivalents A More Promising CBM Target?  
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Introduction Within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, coal was deposited episodically from Jurassic through Tertiary time. Peat swamps developed on both the eastern and western margins of the Interior seaway that at times connected the Boreal sea to the Gulf of Mexico. This coal accumulation was controlled by the presence or absence of favourable depositional environments during periods of marine regression. These environments include but are not limited to fluvial-deltaic, lacustrine and lagoonal settings. Variability in thickness, coal quality and areal extent of these coal seams and zones was an outcome of the depositional processes that operated within these diverse environments. The early Cretaceous time was a particularly active period of coal formation. During the Albian epoch, vast swamp development occurred throughout the basin on both sides of the seaway. This era of peat deposition is preserved as widespread coal accumulations within the Upper Mannville Formation in the West-Central and Southern plains, as the Falher coal zone in the Northern part of the basin and as the Gates coal zone in the Northern Mountains and Foothills region of Alberta. A distribution of coal subcrops occurs along a southeast to northwest trend from south-central Saskatchewan into northeast British Columbia. Regional dip of the sediments is to the southwest with depth to the coals progressively increasing to more than 3000 meters in the deepest part of the basin adjacent to the overthrust belt. Rank variation mirrors overburden depth, with increasing rank of coal toward the deep basin. Along the eastern margin, coals are of sub-
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