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The chicken as a natural model for extraintestinal infections caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

The chicken as a natural model for extraintestinal infections caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC),10.1016/j.micpath.2008.08.005,Microbi

The chicken as a natural model for extraintestinal infections caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)   (Citations: 7)
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E. coli infections in avian species have become an economic threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Several factors have been associated with the virulence of E. coli in avian hosts, but no specific virulence gene has been identified as being entirely responsible for the pathogenicity of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Needless to say, the chicken would serve as the best model organism for unravelling the pathogenic mechanisms of APEC, an extraintestinal pathogen.Five-week-old white leghorn SPF chickens were infected intra-tracheally with a well characterized APEC field strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5) using different doses corresponding to the respective models of infection established, that is, the lung colonization model allowing re-isolation of bacteria only from the lung but not from other internal organs, and the systemic infection model. These two models represent the crucial steps in the pathogenesis of APEC infections, including the colonization of the lung epithelium and the spread of bacteria throughout the bloodstream. The read-out system includes a clinical score, pathomorphological changes and bacterial load determination. The lung colonization model has been established and described for the first time in this study, in addition to a comprehensive account of a systemic infection model which enables the study of severe extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) infections.These in vivo models enable the application of various molecular approaches to study host–pathogen interactions more closely. The most important application of such genetic manipulation techniques is the identification of genes required for extraintestinal virulence, as well as host genes involved in immunity in vivo. The knowledge obtained from these studies serves the dual purpose of shedding light on the nature of virulence itself, as well as providing a route for rational attenuation of the pathogen for vaccine construction, a measure by which extraintestinal infections, including those caused by APEC, could eventually be controlled and prevented in the field.
Journal: Microbial Pathogenesis - MICROB PATHOG , vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 361-369, 2008
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