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Directional control of cell motility through focal adhesion positioning and spatial control of Rac activation

Directional control of cell motility through focal adhesion positioning and spatial control of Rac activation,10.1096/fj.07-090571,Faseb Journal,Nan X

Directional control of cell motility through focal adhesion positioning and spatial control of Rac activation   (Citations: 29)
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Local physical interactions between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) influence directional cell motility that is critical for tissue development, wound repair, and cancer metastasis. Here we test the possibility that the precise spatial positioning of focal adhesions governs the direction in which cells spread and move. NIH 3T3 cells were cultured on circular or linear ECM islands, which were created using a microcontact printing technique and were 1 m wide and of various lengths (1 to 8 m) and separated by 1 to 4.5 m wide nonadhe- sive barrier regions. Cells could be driven proactively to spread and move in particular directions by altering either the interisland spacing or the shape of similar-sized ECM islands. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that focal adhesions assembled preferentially above the ECM islands, with the greatest staining intensity being observed at adhesion sites along the cell periphery. Rac-FRET analysis of living cells revealed that Rac became activated within 2 min after peripheral membrane extensions ad- hered to new ECM islands, and this activation wave propagated outward in an oriented manner as the cells spread from island to island. A computational model, which incorporates that cells preferentially protrude membrane processes from regions near newly formed focal adhesion contacts, could predict with high accuracy the effects of six different arrangements of micropat- terned ECM islands on directional cell spreading. Taken together, these results suggest that physical properties of the ECM may influence directional cell movement by dictating where cells will form new focal adhesions and activate Rac and, hence, govern where new membrane protrusions will form.—Xia, N., Thodeti, C. K., Hunt, T. P., Xu, Q., Ho, M., Whitesides, G. M., Westervelt, R., Ingber, D. E. Directional control of cell motility through focal adhesion positioning and spatial control of Rac activation. FASEB J. 22, 1649-1659 (2008)
Journal: Faseb Journal - FASEB J , vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1649-1659, 2008
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