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Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms1-3

Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms1-3,Richard D Mattes,Barry M Popkin

Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms1-3   (Citations: 9)
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Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged .2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to mod- erate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of direc- tionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incom- plete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without en- ergy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that in- clusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant fur- ther consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89:1-14.
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