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Evolution of pigment synthesis pathways by gene and genome duplication in fish

Evolution of pigment synthesis pathways by gene and genome duplication in fish,10.1186/1471-2148-7-74,BMC Evolutionary Biology,Ingo Braasch,Manfred Sc

Evolution of pigment synthesis pathways by gene and genome duplication in fish   (Citations: 17)
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BACKGROUND: Coloration and color patterning belong to the most diverse phenotypic traits in animals. Particularly, teleost fishes possess more pigment cell types than any other group of vertebrates. As the result of an ancient fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD), teleost genomes might contain more copies of genes involved in pigment cell development than tetrapods. No systematic genomic inventory allowing to test this hypothesis has been drawn up so far for pigmentation genes in fish, and almost nothing is known about the evolution of these genes in different fish lineages. RESULTS: Using a comparative genomic approach including phylogenetic reconstructions and synteny analyses, we have studied two major pigment synthesis pathways in teleost fish, the melanin and the pteridine pathways, with respect to different types of gene duplication. Genes encoding three of the four enzymes involved in the synthesis of melanin from tyrosine have been retained as duplicates after the FSGD. In the pteridine pathway, two cases of duplicated genes originating from the FSGD as well as several lineage-specific gene duplications were observed. In both pathways, genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes, tyrosinase and GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GchI), have additional paralogs in teleosts compared to tetrapods, which have been generated by different modes of duplication. We have also observed a previously unrecognized diversity of gchI genes in vertebrates. In addition, we have found evidence for divergent resolution of duplicated pigmentation genes, i.e., differential gene loss in divergent teleost lineages, particularly in the tyrosinase gene family. CONCLUSION: Mainly due to the FSGD, teleost fishes apparently have a greater repertoire of pigment synthesis genes than any other vertebrate group. Our results support an important role of the FSGD and other types of duplication in the evolution of pigmentation in fish.
Journal: BMC Evolutionary Biology - BMC EVOL BIOL , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 74-18, 2007
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    • ...As cichlids experienced the fish-specific genome duplication the increased number of genes, followed by lineage-specific gene loss, sub-functionalization and regulatory evolution might be a genomic explanation for their species richness (Taylor et al. 2001a, b; Santini et al. 2003; Braasch et al. 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009a, b, c). The utility of the cichlid genome has increased in recent years and is coordinated by the cichlid genome ...

    Helen M. Gunteret al. Identification and Characterization of Gene Expression Involved in the...

    • ... ten of these genes has been carried out (Lister et al. 1999; Parichy et al. 1999; Kawakami et al. 2000; Kelsh et al. 2000; Parichy et al. 2000 a, b; Camp and Lardelli 2001; Fukamachi et al. 2001; Pelletier et al. 2001; Logan et al. 2003), indicating that they codify membrane receptors and transporters, ligands transcription factors, as well as various enzymes involved in the synthesis pathway of the different pigments (reviewed by Braasch et ...
    • ...Gch Enzyme Pteridine synthesis Edison, Yobo Pelletier et al. (2001) Xdh Enzyme Pteridine synthesis ‐ Braasch et al. (2007)...
    • ...As regards the number of genes that participate in salmonid skin pigmentation, about which some type of molecular information is available, to date, 13 have been identified, including the tyrosinase gene (tyr), with four that participate in the melanin synthesis pathway (tyr, tyrp I, dct and silv), eight in the pteridine synthesis pathway (gchla, gchfr, pts, spr, clot, pcbd, dhpr and pam; Braasch et al. 2007), and one in the specification ...
    • ...Most of this information derives from EST analysis and synteny studies (Braasch et al. 2007)...
    • ...Phylogenetic and synteny analysis (reviewed by Braasch et al. 2007) suggests that some of these genes would originate from an early genomic duplication event that could have occurred in fish between 250 and 350 million years ago (e.g., tyr), while others would have arisen as a result of a later autotetraploidy duplication event, that occurred...
    • ...It has been stated that these gene duplication events were most important during the evolution of the color genes, that would explain the diversity and complexity of skin coloration in fish in general and in salmonids in particular (Braasch et al. 2007)...

    Nelson Colihueque. Genetics of salmonid skin pigmentation: clues and prospects for improv...

    • ...It has been shown that Teleosts have retained several color genes as duplicates following the fish specific genome duplication (Braasch et al. 2007)...

    Frederico Henninget al. Genetic, Comparative Genomic, and Expression Analyses of the Mc1r Locu...

    • ...It might be interesting to point out that extensive duplications are also involved in the genes of pigment synthesis in bony fish [12], which might be associated with the evolution of opsin genes through duplication...

    Jun Gojoboriet al. Potential of fish opsin gene duplications to evolve new adaptive funct...

    • ...In terms of functional studies, comparative mapping is a promising tool for identifying genes of interest in pathways, such as the pigmentation pathway (Braasch et al. 2007)...

    E. Sarropoulouet al. Linking the Genomes of Nonmodel Teleosts Through Comparative Genomics

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