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Ingested Blood Contributes to the Specificity of the Symbiosis of Aeromonas veronii Biovar Sobria and Hirudo medicinalis, the Medicinal Leech

Ingested Blood Contributes to the Specificity of the Symbiosis of Aeromonas veronii Biovar Sobria and Hirudo medicinalis, the Medicinal Leech,10.1128/

Ingested Blood Contributes to the Specificity of the Symbiosis of Aeromonas veronii Biovar Sobria and Hirudo medicinalis, the Medicinal Leech   (Citations: 14)
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Hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech, usually carries in its digestive tract a pure culture of Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria. Such specificity is unusual for digestive tracts that are normally colonized by a complex microbial consortium. Important questions for the symbiotic interaction and for the medical application after microvascular surgery are whether other bacteria can proliferate or at least persist in the digestive tract of H. medicinalis and what factors contribute to the reported specificity. Using a colonization assay, we were able to compare experimentally the ability of clinical isolates and of a symbiotic strain to colonize H. medicinalis. The symbiotic A. veronii bv. sobria strain proliferated well and persisted for at least 7 days inside the digestive tract. In contrast, the proliferation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited inside the animal compared to growth in the in vitro control, indicating that the ingested blood was modified within the digestive tract. However, both strains were able to persist in the digestive tract for at least 7 days. For an Escherichia coli strain, the viable counts decreased approximately 1,000-fold within 42 h. The decrease of viable E. coli could be prevented by interfering with the activation of the membrane-attack complex of the complement system that is present in blood. This suggests that the membrane-attack complex remained active inside H. medicinalis and prevented the proliferation of sensitive bacteria. Thus, antimicrobial properties of the ingested vertebrate blood contribute to the specificity of the A. veronii-H. medicinalis symbiosis, in addition to modifi- cations of the blood inside the digestive tract of H. medicinalis.
Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - AEM , vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 4735-4741, 2000
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    • ... Because of the initial activity of complement in the ingested bloo...

    Edward G. Ruby. Symbiotic conversations are revealed under genetic interrogation

    • ...This unusual simplicity is due to the complement system of the ingested blood meal, leech macrophage-like cells that phagocytose sensitive bacteria, and other yet-to-be-identified factors of host or symbiont origin (5, 8, 20, 21)...
    • ...While the presumed beneficial function that Aeromonas provides for the host is still under investigation, factors that the bacteria require for successful colonization have been identified (8, 20, 21)...
    • ...Included among these traits are resistance to serum and a type III secretion system (T3SS) (8, 20)...

    Alison S. Lauferet al. Characterization of the Digestive-Tract Microbiota of Hirudo orientali...

    • ...Recent molecular studies indicate that H. verbana is a distinct but closely related species of Hirudo medicinalis (41) and that the animals used in our previous studies, as well as animals sold for medical applications, are now considered to be H. verbana (4, 15, 20)...
    • ...This pattern is consistent with observations in previous culture-based studies where A. veronii was introduced in a blood meal and the number of culturable bacteria monitored over time after feeding (15, 20)...

    Yoshitomo Kikuchiet al. Spatial and Temporal Population Dynamics of a Naturally Occurring Two-...

    • ...ml 21 of JG186 and HM21RS) were added to blood that had been preheated to 56 uC, which inactivates the antimicrobial properties of the complement system, which can kill sensitive bacteria (Indergand & Graf, 2000)...

    Rita V. M. Rioet al. Characterization of a catalase gene from Aeromonas veronii, the digest...

    • ...Factors that contribute to a limited microbial complexity Factors that contribute to the unusual simplicity of the leech digestive symbiosis could be derived from three sources: the ingested blood, the host and/or the symbiotic bacteria [17,50,51]...
    • ...Heat-inactivation of the blood before feeding enables colonization by some bacterial species that were unable to colonize when fed to the leech in fresh blood [50] .F urthermore, the importance of the Aeromonas lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer in protecting against the antimicrobial properties of the complement system has been demonstrated [53] byobservingthatserum-sensitiveAeromonasmutantswith a defect in their LPS had a dramatically ...
    • ...Staphylococcus aureus were tested for their ability to colonize the leech digestive tract and were able to persist inside it but had a dramatically reduced ability to grow, independent of the activity of the complement system, which suggests the presence of a second layer of defense [50]...

    Joerg Grafet al. Leeches and their microbiota: naturally simple symbiosis models

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