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Effect of gas type and flow rate on Cu free air ball formation in thermosonic wire bonding

Effect of gas type and flow rate on Cu free air ball formation in thermosonic wire bonding,10.1016/j.microrel.2010.02.023,Microelectronics Reliability

Effect of gas type and flow rate on Cu free air ball formation in thermosonic wire bonding   (Citations: 1)
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The development of novel Cu wires for thermosonic wire bonding is time consuming and the effects of shielding gas on the electrical flame off (EFO) process is not fully understood. An online method is used in this study for characterizing Cu free air balls (FABs) formed with different shielding gas types and flow rates. The ball heights before (HFAB) and after deformation (Hdef) are responses of the online method and measured as functions of gas flow rate. Sudden changes in the slopes of these functions, a non-parallelity of the two functions, and a large standard deviation of the HFAB measurements all identify FAB defects. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images in parallel with the online measurements golf-club shaped and pointed shaped FABs are found and the conditions at which they occur are identified. In general FAB defects are thought to be caused by changes in surface tension of the molten metal during EFO due to inhomogeneous cooling or oxidation. It is found that the convective cooling effect of the shielding gas increases with flow rate up to 0.65l/min where the bulk temperature of a thermocouple at the EFO site decreases by 19°C. Flow rates above 0.7l/min yield an undesirable EFO process due to an increase in oxidation which can be explained by a change in flow from laminar to turbulent. The addition of H2 to the shielding gas reduces the oxidation of the FAB as well as providing additional thermal energy during EFO. Different Cu wire materials yield different results where some perform better than others.
Journal: Microelectronics Reliability , vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 43-52, 2011
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    • ...For each wire, EFO parameters are set to obtain a target FAB diameter of ≈40 µm. A previously reported method is used for investigating and comparing deformability [4-7] using an Esec 3100 wirebonder with custom software options...
    • ...The same method as in [7] is used to obtain deformability-flow rate plots as shown in Figs...
    • ...4a and 4b, using shielding gas for Au wire results in increasing hatched area that indicates mis-shaped FABs [7]...
    • ...For the case of Cu wire in forming gas (Fig. 4c), there is a range between 0.25-0.5 l/min flow rates where the trend follows the FAB height, similar to [7]...
    • ...Similarly, [7] reports that all the Cu FABs formed in N 2 gas are...

    A. Rezvaniet al. Free-air ball formation and deformability with Pd coated Cu wire

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