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Sexual dimorphism and asymmetries in the gray–white composition of the human cerebrum

Sexual dimorphism and asymmetries in the gray–white composition of the human cerebrum,10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00034-X,Neuroimage,John S Allen,Hanna Dama

Sexual dimorphism and asymmetries in the gray–white composition of the human cerebrum   (Citations: 88)
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Using high resolution MRI scans and automated tissue segmentation, gray and white matter (GM, WM) volumes of the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, cingulate gyrus, and insula were calculated. Subjects included 23 male and 23 female healthy, right-handed subjects. For all structures, male volumes were greater than female, but the gray/white (G/W) ratio was consistently higher across structures in women than men. Sexual dimorphism was greater for WM than GM: most of the G/W ratio sex differences can be attributed to variation in WM volume. The corpus callosum, although larger in men, is less sexually dimorphic than the WM as a whole. Several regions demonstrate pair-wise asymmetries in G/W ratio and WM volume. Both the cingulate gyrus and insula exhibit strong asymmetries. The left cingulate gyrus is significantly larger than the right, and the G/W ratio of the left insula is significantly greater than that of the right. Although statistically significant sex differences and asymmetries are present at this level of analysis, we argue that researchers should be wary of ascribing cognitive functional significance to these patterns at this time. This is not to say, however, that these patterns are not important for understanding the natural history of the human brain, and its evolution and development.
Journal: Neuroimage , vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 880-894, 2003
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    • ... As a result, the grey to white ratio is higher in women ...

    Richard A. Kanaanet al. Gender Differences in White Matter Microstructure

    • ...The human brain has been investigated quantitatively in termsofitstotalintracranialvolumeandthoseofwhitematter (WM),graymatter(GM),andcerebrospinalfluid(CSF).The GM to WM ratio has been shown to be correlated with sex [14,15]andage[15–18].However,localrelationshipsofGM toWMinindividualsections(asacquiredandreadradiologically) have not been studied quantitatively yet, though investigatingGMandWMacrossindividualslicesprovidesafiner breakdown ...
    • ...Allen et al. [14] studied gray and white matter volumes in specific regions including the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipitallobes,cingulatedgyrus,andinsula.Smithetal.[24] examined age and gender effects on human brain anatomy using a voxel-based morphometry in healthy elderly...
    • ...may be due the to use of different age groups of subjects 22–49 years [14]; 16–70 years [15]; 18–45 years [19]; 58– 95 years [24]; 66–96 years [38]; 63–75 years [39]; 30–99 years [40]; 18–97 years [41]; 20–88 years [42]; 17–79 years [43].Inourstudy,thesubjectsareintherangeof21–58years...

    Wieslaw L. Nowinskiet al. Use of normative distribution of gray to white matter ratio in orthogo...

    • ...2003), whereas others failed to reveal gender difference in CC morphology (Bishop and Wahlsten 1997)...

    Seung Jun Hwanget al. Effects of age and gender on spatial orientation of human corpus callo...

    • ...The usually observed advantage in VSC in males compared with females (Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995), the different activation patterns between the sexes during mental rotation tasks (Hugdahl et al, 2006; Jordan et al, 2002; Unterrainer et al, 2000), and the presence of sexually dimorphic brain structures globally in the whole brain (Allen, Damasio, Grabowski, Bruss, & Zhang, 2003; Gur et al, 1999) as well as locally in the parietal lobes (Im et al, 2006; Allen et al, 2003; Nopoulos, Flaum, O'Leary, & Andreasen, 2000; Verchinski et al, 2000) might indicate that the origin of the VSC performance differences between the sexes observed in the general population (Voyer et al, 1995) is rooted in structural brain differences in the VSC processing network...

    Jürgen Hänggiet al. Sexual Dimorphism in the Parietal Substrate Associated with Visuospati...

    • ...Previous research indicates that men and women differ significantly in total white matter volume and patterns of age-related decline (Allen, Damasio, Grabowski, Bruss, & Zhang, 2003; Good et al, 2001)...

    Barbara B. Bendlinet al. White Matter in Aging and Cognition: A Cross-Sectional Study of Micros...

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