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On the detection of Faraday rotation in linearly polarized L-band SAR backscatter signatures

On the detection of Faraday rotation in linearly polarized L-band SAR backscatter signatures,10.1109/TGRS.2004.830163,IEEE Transactions on Geoscience

On the detection of Faraday rotation in linearly polarized L-band SAR backscatter signatures   (Citations: 48)
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The potentially measurable effects of Faraday rotation on linearly polarized backscatter measurements from space are addressed. Single-polarized, dual-polarized, and quad-polarized backscatter measurements subject to Faraday rotation are first modeled. Then, the impacts are assessed using L-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Due to Faraday rotation, the received signal will include other polarization characteristics of the surface, which may be detectable under certain conditions. Model results are used to suggest data characteristics that will reveal the presence of Faraday rotation in a given single-polarized, dual-polarized, or quad-polarized L-band SAR dataset, provided the user can identify scatterers within the scene whose general behavior is known or can compare the data to another, similar dataset with zero Faraday rotation. The data characteristics found to be most sensitive to a small amount of Faraday rotation (i.e., a one-way rotation <20°) are the cross-pol backscatter [σ°(HV)] and the like-to-cross-pol correlation [e.g., ρ(HHHV*)]. For a diverse, but representative, set of natural terrain, the level of distortion across a range of backscatter measures is shown to be acceptable (i.e., minimal) for one-way Faraday rotations of less than 5°, and 3° if the radiometric uncertainty in the HV backscatter is specified to be less than 0.5 dB.
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    • ...While, compared to the P-band, effects on image quality are less likely to occur and less significant (see, e.g., [4]‐[6]), degradation of interferometric SAR (InSAR) and polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data is still commonplace (see, e.g., [7]‐[12])...
    • ...While several methods for detecting and correcting ionospheric signals have been proposed and successfully demonstrated in recent years (e.g., [7], [8], [14], [15], and [17]‐[21]), an evaluation of their performance and suitability for operational implementation is missing to date...
    • ...Faraday rotation correction methods (e.g., [7], [17], [27], or [28]) try to estimate and correct for Ω such that S can be directly inferred from M � ...

    Franz J. Meyer. Performance Requirements for Ionospheric Correction of Low-Frequency S...

    • ...However, the ionosphere can significantly affect such systems; in particular, L- and P-band spaceborne SAR measurements will suffer from Faraday rotation (FR) [1]‐[3], whose one-way value has been estimated to be as large as 40 ◦ at L-band and 320 ◦ at P-band [4], [5] at solar maximum...

    Jie Chenet al. Improved Estimators of Faraday Rotation in Spaceborne Polarimetric SAR...

    • ...Recent theoretical analyses of ionospheric distortions in Lband SAR data have indicated many effects that are likely to affect the quality of SAR, interferometric SAR (InSAR), and polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data (see, e.g., [1] - [5])...
    • ...Variations of these methods have been developed for application to single images, PolSAR ([14];[1]), and InSAR data...

    Franz Meyer. A review of ionospheric effects in low-frequency SAR - Signals, correc...

    • ...Detection and estimation techniques based on quad-polarized data are presented in [6] and [11]‐[13]...

    Michael Jehleet al. Measurement of Ionospheric TEC in Spaceborne SAR Data

    • ...978-1-4244-9566-5/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE 4177 IGARSS 2010 by Bates in 1965 using circular polarizations and recently reviewed by Freeman in 2004 for linear polarizations [9]:...

    Riccardo Paladiniet al. Fetch limited sea scattering spectral model for HF-OTH skywave radar

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