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Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions

Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions,10.1126/science.1174760,Science,D. T. Shindell,G. Faluvegi,D. M. Koch,G. A. Schmidt,N. Unger,S. E

Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions   (Citations: 45)
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Journal: Science , vol. 326, no. 5953, pp. 716-718, 2009
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    • ...They account for more than 30% of the total radiative forcings due to well-mixed GHG 8–10...

    Y. G. Renet al. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from different treatment processes...

    • ...Both these reactions will increase the earth’s albedo, and thus enhance the cooling effect of NOx (Shindell et al. 2009)...

    Christian Azaret al. Valuing the non-CO 2 climate impacts of aviation

    • ...Even more recent analysis (Shindell et al, 2009), in which direct and indirect effects of aerosol responses to oxidant changes associated with methane emissions are also considered, suggests that actual 100-year horizon GWP values for methane may be 10-40% higher than the AR4 value...

    Matthew R. Johnsonet al. Compositions and Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors of Flared and Vented ...

    • ...Recent modeling indicates methane has an even greater global warming potential than previously believed, when the indirect effects of methane on atmospheric aerosols are considered (Shindell et al. 2009)...
    • ...We use recently modeled values for the global warming potential of methane compared to CO2: 105 and 33 on a mass-to-mass basis for 20 and 100 years, respectively, with an uncertainty of plus or minus 23% (Shindell et al. 2009)...
    • ...The conversion of methane to CO2 equivalents is based on global warming potentials from Shindell et al. (2009) that include both direct and indirect influences of methane on aerosols...
    • ...Mean values from Shindell et al. (2009) are used here...
    • ...Shindell et al. (2009) present an uncertainty in these mean values of plus or minus 23%, which is not included in this figure Climatic Change (2011) 106:679–690 687...
    • ...To evaluate the effect of methane, all three of these studies also used global warming potentials now believed to be too low (Shindell et al. 2009)...
    • ...They used a methane global warming potential value for methane from IPCC (1995) that is only 57% of the new value from Shindell et al. (2009), suggesting that in fact methane emissions of only 2% to 3% make the GHG footprint of conventional gas worse than oil and coal...

    Robert W. Howarthet al. Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale for...

    • ... Reduced [OH] would also mean longer lifetimes and enhanced climate influences for HFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), decreased conversion of SO2 to sulphate aerosol (less cooling) and changes in the cycling of tropospheric ozone, which is a powerful, very short-lived GH...

    E. J. Dlugokenckyet al. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change

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