Impedance control for elastic joints industrial manipulators
An impedance controller for industrial manipulators is presented in this paper. Special attention has been paid to all the aspects that qualify an industrial robot, including decentralized proportional-integral-derivative position control, torsional flexibility, and friction at the joints. A discussion of a single-degree-of-freedom (DOF) case is first presented. The selection of the impedance parameters is based on the behavior in contact and makes reference to a new design parameter, the compliance bandwidth. The single-DOF analysis is then used in the design of the impedance controller for a complete manipulator. A rotational impedance based on a geometrically consistent representation of the orientation is used. Several experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF industrial robot, equipped with a force/torque sensor, are presented. The experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in several conditions, including contact with an extremely stiff surface and noncontact/contact transition.