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Cosmological challenges in theories with extra dimensions and remarks on the horizon problem

Cosmological challenges in theories with extra dimensions and remarks on the horizon problem,10.1103/PhysRevD.61.023511,Physical Review D,Daniel J. H.

Cosmological challenges in theories with extra dimensions and remarks on the horizon problem   (Citations: 16)
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We consider the cosmology that results if our observable universe is a 3-brane in a higher dimensional universe. In particular, we focus on the case where our 3-brane is located at the Z2 symmetry fixed plane of a Z2 symmetric five-dimensional spacetime, as in the Horava-Witten model compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold. As our first result, we find that there can be substantial modifications to the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology; as a consequence, a large class of such models is observationally inconsistent. In particular, any relationship between the Hubble constant and the energy density on our brane is possible, including (but not only) FRW. Generically, due to the existence of the bulk and the boundary conditions on the orbifold fixed plane, the relationship is not FRW, and hence cosmological constraints coming from big bang nucleosynthesis, structure formation, and the age of the universe difficult to satisfy. We do wish to point out, however, that some specific choices for the bulk stress-energy tensor components do reproduce normal FRW cosmology on our brane, and we have constructed an explicit example. As our second result, for a broad class of models, we find a somewhat surprising fact: the stabilization of the radius of the extra dimension and hence the four dimensional Planck mass requires unrealistic fine-tuning of the equation of state on our 3-brane. In the last third of the paper, we make remarks about causality and the horizon problem that apply to any theory in which the volume of the extra dimension determines the four-dimensional gravitational coupling. We point out that some of the assumptions that lead to the usual inflationary requirements are modified.
Journal: Physical Review D - PHYS REV D , vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 23511-023511, 2000
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