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A Prototype Pixel Readout IC for High Count Rate X-Ray Imaging Systems in 90 nm CMOS Technology

A Prototype Pixel Readout IC for High Count Rate X-Ray Imaging Systems in 90 nm CMOS Technology,10.1109/TNS.2010.2044664,IEEE Transactions on Nuclear

A Prototype Pixel Readout IC for High Count Rate X-Ray Imaging Systems in 90 nm CMOS Technology   (Citations: 8)
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We report on the design of a prototype IC called PX90 dedicated for readout of hybrid semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The PX90 has dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm and was designed in CMOS 90 nm technology with 9 metal layers. The core of the IC is a matrix of 40 × 32 pixels with 100 m × 100 m pixel size. A 60 m × 60 m square passivation opening in each pixel allows connecting PX90 to a semiconductor detector using stud bump bonding technique. Each pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two second stage amplifiers, two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters. The stages are DC-coupled and the front-end electronics uses a fully differential readout scheme. To minimize the effective threshold spread at the discriminators inputs, one 8-bit and one 7-bit trim DACs are used. The PX90 can operate in continuous readout mode and in readout mode separate from exposure. The readout of each pixel has some additional functionality, like compression mode or readout of only given number of bits from each pixel. The data are read out via a single LVDS output with 200 Mbps rate.
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science - IEEE TRANS NUCL SCI , vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1664-1674, 2010
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    • ...Based on our experience [6, 7, 8, 9] we decided to design a multichannel systems for recording neurobiology signals in submicron 180 nm CMOS technology...

    Piotr Kmonet al. Comparision of two different architectures of multichannel readout ASI...

    • ...Many electronics laboratories runs a program to develop a single photon counting ASICs for low energy X-ray imaging [1-7]...
    • ...The charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) and the main amplifier used in this design were significantly modified compared to our first prototype PX90 [4] and the new elements are:...

    Robert Szczygielet al. A low noise, Fast Pixel Readout IC working in single photon counting m...

    • ...Based on our previous multichannel projects [8, 14 - 17] we designed a 64 channel integrated system for recording and stimulating the neural network activity...

    P. Kmonet al. Tuning the low cut-off frequency in multichannel neural recording ampl...

    • ...IXEL readout integrated circuits for hybrid pixel detectors working in single photon counting mode are going into a direction of using deep submicron technologies or 3D technologies, to obtain more functionality in a single pixel cell [1]–[10]...
    • ...The charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) and the main amplifier used in this design were significantly modified compared to our first prototype PX90 [1]...
    • ...To minimize the noise contribution from M4, this device was pushed into the linear region by making m/ 20 m. This is unusual in such a design, but it allows to reduce the transconductance of M4 while keeping its output resistance relatively high (see discussion of folded cascode gain in [1], )...
    • ...The AC coupling implemented in the front-end electronics between the CSA and the main amplifier significantly reduces the problem of offsets spread from channel to channel compared to our first prototype PX90 IC [1]...
    • ...Each measured integral spectrum is fitted to the modified error function with an additional term to model charge sharing [1] which gives us the positions of the energy peaks and the noise for each pixel...
    • ...Each measured integral spectrum was fitted to the modified error function [1]...
    • ...This is a significant improvement compared to the first 90 nm prototype [1]...

    R. Szczygielet al. FPDR90—A Low Noise, Fast Pixel Readout Chip in 90 nm CMOS Technology

    • ...The most demanding and promising solutions of a single photon counting systems are hybrid pixel detectors (shown schematically in Fig. 1) [1-9]...
    • ...We have designed two prototypes in 90 nm TSMC technology: PX90 chip [1] (which was the first implementation of readout electronics for hybrid semiconductor detectors in 90 nm technology node known in literature) and last year FPDR90 (Fast Pixel Detector Readout 90 nm) chip...
    • ...The tests show that a dead time in the front-end as low as 117 ns (paralyzable model [1]) can be set...

    P. Majet al. Development of a fast readout chip in deep submicron technology for pi...

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