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Variations in Tropical Sea Surface Temperature and Surface Wind Fields Associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Niño

Variations in Tropical Sea Surface Temperature and Surface Wind Fields Associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Niño,10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<035

Variations in Tropical Sea Surface Temperature and Surface Wind Fields Associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Niño   (Citations: 866)
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Journal: Monthly Weather Review - MON WEATHER REV , vol. 110, no. 5, 1982
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    • ...Perhaps the most commonly used indices to document ENSO are the atmospheric Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and the oceanic Niño‐1+2, Niño‐3, Niño‐3.4 and Niño‐4 SST indices [e.g., Rasmusson and Carpenter, 1982; Trenberth, 1984, 1997]...
    • ...Accordingly, both ENSO similarities and differences have been analyzed in the last three decades, probably starting from the milestone papers of Wyrtki [1975] and Rasmusson and Carpenter [1982]...

    Awnesh Singhet al. Contrasting the flavors of El Niño-Southern Oscillation using sea surf...

    • ...There is a propensity for El Niño events to peak in northern winter of year 0 (using the terminology of Rasmusson and Carpenter [1982]), consistent with previous descriptions of El Niño...

    Benjamin S. Gieseet al. El Niño variability in simple ocean data assimilation (SODA), 1871–200...

    • ...The mean ocean currents and upwelling were estimated by forcing the 1.5 layer ocean model in the ZCM with the RC climatological wind stress from (Rasmusson and Carpenter 1982, hereafter referred to as RC); the necessary subsurface temperature parameterisations were devised on an ad hoc basis...

    William H. G. RobertsDavidet al. A new tool for evaluating the physics of coupled atmosphere–ocean vari...

    • ...The conventional type of El Niño/La Niña events is similar to tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variations described by Rasmusson and Carpenter (1982) which tend to have their anomaly center located in the eastern Pacific...

    Jin-Yi Yuet al. Subsurface ocean temperature indices for Central-Pacific and Eastern-P...

    • ...[2] It is well known that “no two El Niño events are quite alike” [Wyrtki, 1975], yet the typical evolution of such an event was thought to consist in an initial warming off South America and later in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer (DJF) [Wyrtki, 1975; Rasmusson and Carpenter, 1982]...
    • ...Interestingly, the “canonical” El Niño composite [Rasmusson and Carpenter, 1982] is closer to the Modoki category than to the two extraordinary El Niño eventsof1982–83and1997–98,whilethe “canonical”1957– 58 event clearly classifies as Modoki (Figure 1). [10] On the other hand, from Figure 1 we can clearly identify two ENSO regimes: the regime of extraordinary warm events (the 1982–83 and 1997–98 events, as well as the 1877–78 ...
    • ...Figure 4. Evolution of PC1 and PC2 from May (indicated with circles) to the following January (crosses, corresponding year shown) El Niño events: (a) events considered by Rasmusson and Carpenter [1982] (their composite is shown thicker); (b) extraordinary events; (c) central Pacific events [Kug et al., 2009] including the recent 2009–10 event [Lee and McPhaden, 2010]; (d) other moderate events since 1950 according to NOAA, ...
    • ...Ontheotherhand,Ashoketal.[2007]arguedthatthefirstand second EOF modes of the tropical Pacific SST anomalies, closely related to the Niño 3.4 index and TNI, respectively, actually describe two separate phenomenon, as the two indices evolve differently during the so‐called “El Niño Modoki” eventsand duringthe canonical El Niño[Rasmusson and Carpenter, 1982]...
    • ...The C index is the one that best relates to the so‐called “El Niño Modoki”, although its pattern shares many characteristics with the canonical El Niño of Rasmusson and Carpenter [1982]...

    K. Takahashiet al. ENSO regimes: Reinterpreting the canonical and Modoki El Niño

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