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On the use of step-tuneable gyrotrons in ITER

On the use of step-tuneable gyrotrons in ITER,10.1088/1742-6596/25/1/033,Journal of Physics: Conference Series,H. Zohm,M. Thumm

On the use of step-tuneable gyrotrons in ITER   (Citations: 11)
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We discuss the use of step-tuneable gyrotrons in present day and future tokamak devices. It is shown that with a two-frequency system, the performance of the planned ITER ECCD system, using the present launcher designs, could be greatly enhanced. With step-tuneable gyrotrons, it should be possible to use fixed launchers without any steering at all.
Journal: Journal of Physics: Conference Series , vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 274-282, 2005
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    • ...Long pulse (a few seconds) gyrotrons delivering output powers of up to 1.5 MW per unit, at frequencies between 28 and 170 GHz have been used very successfully for plasma ionization and start-up, electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and local current density profile control by noninductive electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in tokamaks [20, 21] and stellarators [22]...
    • ...1.5–2.5% steps for approximately ten different frequencies) would permit the use of a simple, fixed non-steerable mirror antenna for local ECCD experiments and plasma stabilization [21, 42]...
    • ...In the case of local, non-inductive current drive for suppression of plasma instabilities in futuretokamak fusion reactors the gyrotron is agood option,since ultra-broadband windows and specific gyrotron magnets allow stepwise frequency tuning in the seconds time-scale in the full D-band (110–170 GHz) [21]...

    Manfred K. A. Thumm. Recent Developments on High-Power Gyrotrons—Introduction to This Speci...

    • ...ten different frequencies) would permit the use of a simple fixed nonsteerable mirror antenna for local electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) experiments and plasma stabilization [20], [21]...
    • ...Fig. 9. Measured and calculated gyrotron output power and efficiency versus cathode voltage at Ib =8 0A and nominal magnetic field of 6.87 T [21]...

    Manfred Thumm. Progress on Gyrotrons for ITER and Future Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor...

    • ...Fast stepfrequency tuning with a frequency step of about 2 GHz over a range of up to ±7 GHz is of interest for suppressing magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in fusion plasmas [10]...

    Guolin Liet al. Analysis of a Quasi-Optical Launcher Toward a Step-Tunable 2MW Coaxial...

    • ...Frequency step-tunable gyrotrons for Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) of magnetically confined fusion plasmas and for Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) in plasmas were considered in [1, 2]. In recent years, new exciting applications of gyrotrons have emerged beyond fusion plasma applications...

    Zisis C. Ioannidiset al. Linear and Non-Linear Inserts for Genuinely Wideband Continuous Freque...

    • ...Recent design studies have shown that the use of step-tunable gyrotrons in ITER could greatly enhance the flexibility and, to some extent, the performance of the ITER ECRH system [4]...

    Jeffrey M. Neilson. Optimization of Quasi-Optical Launchers for Multifrequency Gyrotrons

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