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A model of force and impedance in human arm movements

A model of force and impedance in human arm movements,10.1007/s00422-004-0484-4,Biological Cybernetics,K. P. Tee,Etienne Burdet,C. M. Chew,T. E. Milne

A model of force and impedance in human arm movements   (Citations: 25)
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This paper describes a simple computational model of joint torque and impedance in human arm move- ments that can be used to simulate three-dimensional movements of the (redundant) arm or leg and to design the control of robots and human-machine interfaces. This model, based on recent physiological findings, assumes that (1) the central nervous system learns the force and impedance to perform a task successfully in a given sta- ble or unstable dynamic environment and (2) stiffness is linearly related to the magnitude of the joint torque and increased to compensate for environment instability. Com- parison with existing data shows that this simple model is able to predict impedance geometry well.
Journal: Biological Cybernetics , vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 368-375, 2004
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