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An Innovative Approach Based on a Tree-Searching Algorithm for the Optimal Matching of Independently Optimum Sum and Difference Excitations

An Innovative Approach Based on a Tree-Searching Algorithm for the Optimal Matching of Independently Optimum Sum and Difference Excitations,10.1109/TA

An Innovative Approach Based on a Tree-Searching Algorithm for the Optimal Matching of Independently Optimum Sum and Difference Excitations   (Citations: 33)
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An innovative approach for the optimal matching of independently optimum sum and difference patterns through sub-arrayed monopulse linear arrays is presented. By exploiting the relationship between the independently optimal sum and difference excitations, the set of possible solutions is considerably reduced and the synthesis problem is recast as the search of the best solution in a noncomplete binary tree. Towards this end, a fast resolution algorithm that exploits the presence of elements more suitable to change subarray membership is presented. The results of a set of numerical experiments are reported in order to validate the proposed approach pointing out its effectiveness also in comparison with state-of-the-art optimal matching techniques.
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    • ...As regards sum-difference compromises, excitation matching strategies [20], [25], approaches based on evolutionary algorithms [21]‐[23], [26], and hybrid techniques [24], [27] have been used...
    • ...By supposing the generation of patterns and exploiting the guidelines of [25], once the excitations of the main pattern have been set through the primary feeding network, sub-arrayed transmission lines can be designed in a serial way [serial approach, ‐ Fig. 1(a)] to generate the sub-optimal beam patterns...
    • ...Likewise [25], the solution of the problem at hand is formulated as the definition of compromise patterns close as much as possible to reference beams by means of an excitation matching strategy...
    • ...The whole sub-array configuration is mathematically described throughtheintegervector [23].Moreover, istheweightcoefficientofthe thsub-arrayrelatedto the th beam and is the Kronecker delta function ( if , otherwise) [25]...
    • ...Following the guidelines of the optimal matching approach presented in [25] and here properly customized to the generation of multiple patterns, the problem is recast as the definition of the sub-array aggregation, , and of sets of real subarray weights, , ,...
    • ...As shown in [25], once the sub-array configuration is set, the weights , , are defined as follows:...
    • ...where , ,arethe reference weights [25], namely those coefficients generating optimal patterns when using independent BFNs...
    • ...Unlike [25], where the Contiguous Partition Method (CPM) has been proposed to synthesize one compromise pattern ( ), we are now aimed at extending the CPM to deal with sub-optimal patterns ( – CPM)...
    • ...Unfortunately, the guidelines of [30] suitably exploited in [25] cannot be applied here since a sorting property for the reference vectors , does not exist...
    • ...In order to provide quantitative information, the mainlobe beamwidth, , the position of the first pattern null, , and the peak sidelobe level, SLL, have been evaluated for the compromise patterns and compared to those of the reference ones. Furthermore, the matching indexes [25]...

    Luca Manicaet al. Synthesis of MultiBeam Sub-Arrayed Antennas Through an Excitation Matc...

    • ...Among them, the sub-arraying strategy has shown being an effective solution [15]...
    • ...The knowledge of optimal sum and difference reference excitations has been exploited in [15] to reduce the dimension of the solution space of the sub-array configurations by addressing the synthesis problem as an excitation matching one...
    • ...According to [15], the following excitation matching cost function is minimized...
    • ...Fig. 3 shows the behavior of the best and average fitness value of the ACO throughout the optimization process as well as the solutions achieved by the border element method (BEM) [15], namely an ad-hoc deterministic procedure developed for the sampling of the DAG...

    G. Oliveriet al. Evolutionary strategies for advanced array optimization

    • ...More specifically, the aggregation of the elements into sub-arrays is determined by means of a customized [to the synthesis of single-beam time-modulated linear arrays (TMLAs)] version of the border element method (BEM) [12], [26] because of its computational effectiveness...
    • ...The first stage exploits the guidelines of the excitation matching procedure presented in [26] and here customized to the synthesis of time-modulated arrays...
    • ...The elements of a set of (real) excitations, , affording a desired/reference pattern, are sorted on a line successively subdivided into sub-sets to define a trial sub-array configuration, . The positions of the cut points along the line are iteratively ( being the iteration index) updated by means of the Border Element Method [26] applied to minimize the mismatch between the reference distribution of coefficients and its stepwise ...
    • ...In (6), the normalized switch-on times, , , are analytically computed [26] for each trial sub-array configuration, , as follows...
    • ...The iterative process is stopped after an heuristically-determined maximum number of iterations, , or when the stationary condition [26] on the value of given by ,...

    Paolo Roccaet al. Synthesis of Sub-Arrayed Time Modulated Linear Arrays Through a MultiS...

    • ...In this work, two innovative design techniques are proposed, namely the CPM [4] and the BCS [5], aimed at synthesizing simple array architectures with high BCEs and low PSLs...
    • ...Towards this end, a matching either on the weights [4] or on the pattern [5] of known DPSS sequences [3] is performed...
    • ...The sampling of the solution space is performed by means of the deterministic procedure proposed in [4] and successively extended to the synthesis of planar structures in [8,9]...

    Paolo Roccaet al. Innovative array designs for wireless power transmission

    • ...Such computational solutions, together with the design non-regular [16] as well as multibeam [17] WPT arrays are currently under investigation...

    Giacomo Oliveriet al. Array antenna architectures for solar power satellites and wireless po...

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