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A Monolithic CMOS-MEMS 3Axis Accelerometer With a Low-Noise, Low-Power Dual-Chopper Amplifier

A Monolithic CMOS-MEMS 3Axis Accelerometer With a Low-Noise, Low-Power Dual-Chopper Amplifier,10.1109/JSEN.2008.923582,IEEE Sensors Journal,Hongwei Qu

A Monolithic CMOS-MEMS 3Axis Accelerometer With a Low-Noise, Low-Power Dual-Chopper Amplifier   (Citations: 21)
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This paper reports a monolithically integrated CMOS-MEMS three-axis capacitive accelerometer with a single proof mass. An improved DRIE post-CMOS MEMS process has been developed, which provides robust single-crystal silicon (SCS) structures in all three axes and greatly reduces undercut of comb fingers. The sensing electrodes are also composed of the thick SCS layer, resulting in high resolution and large sensing capacitance. Due to the high wiring flexibility provided by the fabrication process, fully differential capacitive sensing and common-centroid configurations are realized in all three axes. A low-noise, low- power dual-chopper amplifier is designed for each axis, which consumes only 1 mW power. With 44.5 dB on-chip amplification, the measured sensitivities of x-, y-, and z-axis accelerometers are 520 mV/g, 460 mV/g, and 320 mV/g, respectively, which can be tuned by simply changing the amplitude of the modulation signal. Accordingly, the overall noise floors of the x-, y-, and z-axis are 12 mug/radicHz , 14 mug/radicHz, and 110 mug/radicHz, respectively, when tested at around 200 Hz.
Journal: IEEE Sensors Journal - IEEE SENS J , vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1511-1518, 2008
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    • ...They have been widely applied in automotive, navigation, video games, cell phones, and many other consumer electronics products [1]‐[15]...
    • ...Integrated MEMS inertial sensors can be fabricated using either surface micromachining [2], [3], [6]‐[10] or bulk micromachining [11]‐[15] of which the bulk CMOS-MEMS technology can achieve higher resolution than its surface micromachining counterpart even with...
    • ...Bulk CMOS micromachining, on the other hand, can significantly increase the sensing capacitance by increasing the structure size as well as using bulk silicon as part of sensing capacitors [15], but the capacitance is typically kept in the range of 0.5‐2 pF to minimize the chip size...
    • ...The device is fabricated with a post-CMOS micromachining process [15], [24], [25]...
    • ...The details of the device are summarized in TableI.Readerswhoareinterestedinthesensordesigncanrefer to [15]...
    • ...Note that the three-axis accelerometer in [15] has only a single proof mass while the three-axis accelerometer reported...

    Hongzhi Sunet al. A Low-Power Low-Noise Dual-Chopper Amplifier for Capacitive CMOS-MEMS ...

    • ...Among various MEMS gyroscopes, monolithic CMOS-MEMS gyroscopes, which have the advantages of smaller size, lower parasitics, and potentially lower cost over the two-chip hybrid solutions, are of strong interest [5]...
    • ...Especially for the deep-reactive-ion-etch (DRIE) CMOS-MEMS gyroscopes, the utilization of single-crystal silicon (SCS) as the structural layer enables much smaller form factor without sacrificing resolution compared with the thick-poly, stacking or other hybrid solutions [5], [6]...
    • ...The architecture of the front end is very important, because both the sensing capacitance and the mechanical sensitivity of CMOS-MEMS gyroscopes are relatively low compared with hybrid solutions [5]...

    Hongzhi Sunet al. A CMOS-MEMS Gyroscope Interface Circuit Design With High Gain and Low ...

    • ...Thus, the CMOS-MEMS based fully-differential capacitive sensing accelerometer has been extensively reported [5-6]...

    Yi-Chang Hsuet al. Implementation of fully-differential capacitance sensing accelerometer...

    • ...The other one of the readout circuits is continuous-time voltage (CTV) method [2] [3]...

    Chun-Kai Wanget al. A monolithic CMOS MEMS accelerometer with chopper correlated double sa...

    • ...The tri-axis MEMS accelerometer has been extensively investigated in [3]‐[7]...
    • ...A differential verticalcomb out-of-plane sensing electrode for tri-axis accelerometer is reported in [7], [9]...
    • ...Note that the circuit gain of [6] and [7] is more than 40 dB, whereas the circuit of this paper is 0 dB. Thus,...

    Chih-Ming Sunet al. Implementation of a Monolithic Single Proof-Mass Tri-Axis Acceleromete...

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