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Large Tandem, Higher Order Repeats and Regularly Dispersed Repeat Units Contribute Substantially to Divergence Between Human and Chimpanzee Y Chromosomes

Large Tandem, Higher Order Repeats and Regularly Dispersed Repeat Units Contribute Substantially to Divergence Between Human and Chimpanzee Y Chromoso

Large Tandem, Higher Order Repeats and Regularly Dispersed Repeat Units Contribute Substantially to Divergence Between Human and Chimpanzee Y Chromosomes  
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Comparison of human and chimpanzee genomes has received much attention, because of paramount role for understanding evolutionary step distinguishing us from our closest living relative. In order to contribute to insight into Y chromosome evolutionary history, we study and compare tandems, higher order repeats (HORs), and regularly dispersed repeats in human and chimpanzee Y chromosome contigs, using robust Global Repeat Map algorithm. We find a new type of long-range acceleration, human-accelerated HOR regions. In peripheral domains of 35mer human alphoid HORs, we find riddled features with ten additional repeat monomers. In chimpanzee, we identify 30mer alphoid HOR. We construct alphoid HOR schemes showing significant human–chimpanzee difference, revealing rapid evolution after human–chimpanzee separation. We identify and analyze over 20 large repeat units, most of them reported here for the first time as: chimpanzee and human ~1.6 kb 3mer secondary repeat unit (SRU) and ~23.5 kb tertiary repeat unit (~0.55 kb primary repeat unit, PRU); human 10848, 15775, 20309, 60910, and 72140 bp PRUs; human 3mer SRU (~2.4 kb PRU); 715mer and 1123mer SRUs (5mer PRU); chimpanzee 5096, 10762, 10853, 60523 bp PRUs; and chimpanzee 64624 bp SRU (10853 bp PRU). We show that substantial human–chimpanzee differences are concentrated in large repeat structures, at the level of as much as ~70% divergence, sizably exceeding previous numerical estimates for some selected noncoding sequences. Smeared over the whole sequenced assembly (25 Mb) this gives ~14% human–chimpanzee divergence. This is significantly higher estimate of divergence between human and chimpanzee than previous estimates.
Journal: Journal of Molecular Evolution - J MOL EVOL , vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 34-55, 2011
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