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Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet

Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet,10.1038/ejcn.2009.4,European Journal of Clinical Nutrit

Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet   (Citations: 14)
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Background:The contemporary American diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases—‘diseases of civilization’. We investigated in humans whether a diet similar to that consumed by our preagricultural hunter-gatherer ancestors (that is, a paleolithic type diet) confers health benefits.Methods:We performed an outpatient, metabolically controlled study, in nine nonobese sedentary healthy volunteers, ensuring no weight loss by daily weight. We compared the findings when the participants consumed their usual diet with those when they consumed a paleolithic type diet. The participants consumed their usual diet for 3 days, three ramp-up diets of increasing potassium and fiber for 7 days, then a paleolithic type diet comprising lean meat, fruits, vegetables and nuts, and excluding nonpaleolithic type foods, such as cereal grains, dairy or legumes, for 10 days. Outcomes included arterial blood pressure (BP); 24-h urine sodium and potassium excretion; plasma glucose and insulin areas under the curve (AUC) during a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); insulin sensitivity; plasma lipid concentrations; and brachial artery reactivity in response to ischemia.Results:Compared with the baseline (usual) diet, we observed (a) significant reductions in BP associated with improved arterial distensibility (−3.1±2.9, P=0.01 and +0.19±0.23, P=0.05);(b) significant reduction in plasma insulin vs time AUC, during the OGTT (P=0.006); and (c) large significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (−0.8±0.6 (P=0.007), −0.7±0.5 (P=0.003) and −0.3±0.3 (P=0.01) mmol/l respectively). In all these measured variables, either eight or all nine participants had identical directional responses when switched to paleolithic type diet, that is, near consistently improved status of circulatory, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism/physiology.Conclusions:Even short-term consumption of a paleolithic type diet improves BP and glucose tolerance, decreases insulin secretion, increases insulin sensitivity and improves lipid profiles without weight loss in healthy sedentary humans.
Journal: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition - EUR J CLIN NUTR , vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 947-955, 2009
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    • ...Paleolithic diet, which excludes hyperglycemic carbohydrates and insulinotropic dairy, has been successfully introduced for the prevention and treatment of acne, T2D and cardiovascular diseases [16,29]...
    • ...45) [16,29]. Furthermore, combinations of hyperglycemic carbohydrates and insulinotropic dairy with potentiating effects on IIS should be restricted...

    Bodo C Melniket al. Overstimulation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling by western diet may promote...

    • ... The most convincing evidence regarding the effect of diet is from studies showing that the fasting plasma insulin level is reduced by consuming a Paleolithic-type diet...

    Ralph Peekeret al. Urological aspects of the metabolic syndrome

    • ...Supporting this view are the findings of Frassetto et al, where calcium intake remained unchanged and urine calcium decreased after a Paleolithic diet compared to baseline [64]...

    Tommy Jönssonet al. A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-...

    • ...The important factor may be the increase in plant nutrients derived from nuts and berries, and the increase in the unsaturated to saturated fat ratio [102]...

    Alistair V Nunnet al. Inflammatory modulation of exercise salience: using hormesis to return...

    • ...In another non-controlled study in nine healthy overweight individuals where intervention food was supplied and weight kept steady, Frassetto et al found that ten days of a Paleolithic diet improved diastolic blood pressure (DBP), glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles [10]...
    • ...This result agrees with findings from Frassetto et al [10], but differs from our previous parallel-group trial which compared a Paleolithic diet with a Mediterranean-like diet in subjects with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance [4]...
    • ...Improvements in HbA1c [4], weight [4,12,52], BMI [52], waist circumference [4,52], DBP [10], and TG [10], compared to baseline, on a Paleolithic diet have been observed before in intervention studies, while improvements in HDL have not...
    • ...Improvements in HbA1c [4], weight [4,12,52], BMI [52], waist circumference [4,52], DBP [10], and TG [10], compared to baseline, on a Paleolithic diet have been observed before in intervention studies, while improvements in HDL have not...
    • ...Also, lower intake of cereals, dairy products, carbohydrates, dietary GL and saturated fat, and higher intake of fruit and potassium have been observed before [4,10]...
    • ...Supporting this view are the findings of Frassetto et al, where calcium intake remained unchanged and urine calcium decreased after a Paleolithic diet compared to baseline [10]...

    Tommy Jönssonet al. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factor...

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