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Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind” ?

Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind” ?,10.1016/0010-0277(85)90022-8,Cognition,SIMON BARON-COHEN,ALAN M. LESLIE,UTA FRITH

Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind” ?   (Citations: 1499)
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We use a new model of metarepresentational development to predict a cognitive deficit which could explain a crucial component of the social impairment in childhood autism. One of the manifestations of a basic metarepresentational ca- pacity is a 'theory of mind'. We have reason to believe that autistic children lack such a 'theory'. If this were so, then they would be unable to impute beliefs to others and to predict their behaviour. This hypothesis was tested using Wimmer and Perner's puppet play paradigm. Normal children and those with Down's syndrome were used as controls for a group of autistic children. Even though the mental age of the autistic children was higher than that of the controls, they alone failed to impute beliefs to others. Thus the dysfunction we have postula- ted and demonstrated is independent of mental retardation and specific to autism.
Journal: Cognition , vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 37-46, 1985
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    • ...In addition, other deficits often associated with PDD that may affect social functioning include an inability to take the perspective of others (Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985; Ozonoff & Miller, 1995) and difficulty sharing personal and emotional information (Gutstein & Whitney, 2008)...

    Carla Schmidtet al. The Use of Peer-Mediated Interventions to Promote the Generalization o...

    • ...However, in keeping with other individuals diagnosed with autism, individuals with AS exhibit restricted patterns of behavior and interests (Frith, 1991), experience difficulties in social interaction and communication, and score low on empathy and theory of mind—the ability to “read” another's mind (and consequently another's behavior) and view it as different from one's own (see Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985; Happé, 1993; Kaland et al, 2002; for a review, see Hamilton, 2009; for a different view, see Gernsbacher & Frymiare, 2005; Hamilton, 2009; but see Hobson, 1990, 1991, this issue)...

    Rachel Gioraet al. Salience and Context: Interpretation of Metaphorical and Literal Langu...

    • ...In line with the deficits observed in autism in Theory of Mind abilities (ie, the capacity to attribute mental states, such as beliefs, desires and goals, to others; eg, Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985; Baron-Cohen, 1988; Castelli, Frith, Happé, & Frith, 2002; Happé, 1993), one of the most severely affected language domains in ASD is pragmatics, or the appropriate use of language in a social context (Boucher, 2003; see Groen, Zwiers, can der Gaag, & Buitelaar, 2008, for review)...

    Natalie L. Colichet al. Atypical Neural Processing of Ironic and Sincere Remarks in Children a...

    • ...Four false belief scenarios (Appendix A) were pre-recorded on video, two of which were location change versions (ie, “Sally-Anne”) (Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985) and two of which were deceptive box versions (eg, “Smarties”) (Perner, Leekam, & Wimmer, 1987)...

    Alexandra Bright-Paulet al. Children's memory distortions following social contact with a co-witne...

    • ...Nonetheless, alongside Ozonoff and Miller (1996), many of the studies cited by the contributions to this special issue as evidence that autistic persons have a specific deficit in figurative language rely precariously for their studies' control on tests of vocabulary, rather than comprehension (eg, Baron-Cohen, 1997; Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985; Beaumont & Sofronoff, 2008; García-Pérez, Hobson, & Lee, 2008; García-Pérez, Lee, & Hobson, 2007; Gunter, Ghaziuddin, & Ellis, 2002; Happé, 1995; Hobson, Lee, & Hobson, 2007, 2010)...

    Morton Ann Gernsbacheret al. Who's Missing the Point? A Commentary on Claims that Autistic Persons ...

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