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Rate of red blood cell destruction varies in different strains of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei-ANKA after chronic exposure

Rate of red blood cell destruction varies in different strains of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei-ANKA after chronic exposure,10.1186/1475-2875-

Rate of red blood cell destruction varies in different strains of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei-ANKA after chronic exposure   (Citations: 4)
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BACKGROUND: Severe malaria anaemia in the semi-immune individuals in the holo-endemic area has been observed to occur at low parasite density with individual variation in the responses. Thus the following has been thought to be involved: auto-immune-mediated mechanisms of uninfected red blood cell destruction, and host genetic factors to explain the differences in individual responses under the same malaria transmission. In this study, the extent of red blood cell (RBC) destruction in different strains of semi-immune mice model at relatively low parasitaemia was studied. METHODOLOGY: To generate semi-immunity, four strains of mice were taken through several cycles of infection and treatment. By means of immunofluorescent assay and ELISA, sera were screened for anti-erythrocyte auto-antibodies, and their relationship with haematological parameters and parasitaemia in the strains of semi-immune mice was investigated. RESULTS: Upon challenge with Plasmodium berghei ANKA after generating semi-immune status, different mean percentage haemoglobin (Hb) drop was observed in the mice strains (Balb/c = 47.1%; NZW = 30.05%; C57BL/6 = 28.44%; CBA = 25.1%), which occurred on different days for each strain (for Balb/c, mean period = 13.6 days; for C57BL/6, NZW, and CBA mean period = 10.6, 10.8, 10.9 days respectively). Binding of antibody to white ghost RBCs was observed in sera of the four strains of semi-immune mice by immunofluorescence. Mean percentage Hb drop per parasitaemia was highest in Balb/c (73.6), followed by C57BL/6 (8.6), CBA (6.9) and NZW (4.0), p = 0.0005. Consequently, auto-antibodies level to ghost RBC were correlated with degree of anaemia and were highest in Balb/c, when compared with the other strains, p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this study seem to indicate that anti-RBC auto-antibodies may be involved in the destruction of uninfected RBC in semi-immune mice at relatively low parasite burden. Host genetic factors may also influence the outcome of auto-immune mediated destruction of RBC due to the variation in Hb loss per % parasitaemia and differences in antibody titer for each semi-immune mice strain. However, further studies at the molecular level ought to be carried out to confirm this.
Journal: Malaria Journal - MALAR J , vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 91-13, 2009
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    • ...This motivated us and others to use a semi-immune malaria model mouse (Evans et al. 2006; Helegbe et al. 2009) for the analysis of the pathogenesis of severe malaria anemia...
    • ...Hb loss in the semi-immune mice occurred at relatively low parasitemia and was speculated to be generated by the destruction of normal uninfected red blood cell (uRBC; Evans et al. 2006; Helegbe et al. 2009)...
    • ...The main advantage of the rodent model of SMA as developed by Evans et al. (2006) and used successfully in another study (Helegbe et al. 2009) is that they are uncomplicated by excessive parasite burdens, which is reflective of the associated hemolytic anemia of SMA in the human populations...
    • ...With our previous studies of high Hb loss at low parasitemia and high antibody titer in Balb/c, and low antibody titer with low Hb loss at relatively high parasitemia in CBA (Helegbe et al. 2009), we chose these two strains for the histopathology study to help understand further the mechanism of uRBC destruction in Balb/c...
    • ...Even though PbANKA is regarded as a CM model, its use in the anemia studies of chronic situation (Evans et al. 2006; Helegbe et al. 2009) shows that this can be adapted for the study of SMA in the semi-immune...
    • ...Repeated infection plays a role in providing protection to the semi-immune mice strains where antibody titer was observed to be high (Helegbe et al. 2009)...
    • ...While Hb loss in CBA may be due to direct lyses of iRBC due to its high parasitemia (Table 1), high antibody titer in the Balb/c as reported in an earlier study (Helegbe et al. 2009) enhances the sensitization of the RBC (both iRBC and uRBC) resulting in the significant Hb loss in the Balb/c (Evans et al. 2006; Helegbe et al. 2009)...
    • ...While Hb loss in CBA may be due to direct lyses of iRBC due to its high parasitemia (Table 1), high antibody titer in the Balb/c as reported in an earlier study (Helegbe et al. 2009) enhances the sensitization of the RBC (both iRBC and uRBC) resulting in the significant Hb loss in the Balb/c (Evans et al. 2006; Helegbe et al. 2009)...

    Gideon Kofi Helegbeet al. Histopathological studies in two strains of semi-immune mice infected ...

    • ...Data from experimental rodent malaria infection, widely used as malaria models, have reinforced premature destruction of nRBC as a relevant process of malaria anaemia [13,14]...
    • ...Indeed, antierythrocyte auto-antibodies and nitric oxide production are increased during plasmodia infection and they can be associated to anaemia severity [14,27,28]...

    Paulo RR Totinoet al. Apoptosis of non-parasitized red blood cells in malaria: a putative me...

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