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Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers

Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers,10.1136/bjsm.33.1.14,British Journal of Sports Medicine,J. Booth,F. Marino,C. Hill,T. Gwinn

Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers   (Citations: 15)
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OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate concentration ([La(b)]), and heart rate (HR) response during indoor and outdoor sport climbing. METHODS: Seven climbers aged 25 (SE 1) years, with a personal best ascent without preview or fall (on sight) ranging from 6b to 7a were assessed using an indoor vertical treadmill with artificial rock hand/foot holds and a discontinuous protocol with climbing velocity incremented until voluntary fatigue. On a separate occasion the subjects performed a 23.4 m outdoor rock climb graded 5c and taking 7 min 36 s (SE 33 s) to complete. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using a telemetry system and [La(b)] collected at rest and after climbing. RESULTS: Indoor climbing elicited a peak oxygen uptake (VO2climb-peak) and peak HR (HRpeak) of 43.8 (SE 2.2) ml/kg/min and 190 (SE 4) bpm, respectively and increased blood lactate concentration [La(b)] from 1.4 (0.1) to 10.2 (0.6) mmol/l (p < 0.05). During outdoor climbing VO2 and HR increased to about 75% and 83% of VO2climb-peak and HRpeak, respectively. [La(b)] increased from 1.3 (0.1) at rest to 4.5 mmol/l (p < 0.05) at 2 min 32 s (8 s) after completion of the climb. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that for elite climbers outdoor sport rock climbs of five to 10 minutes' duration and moderate difficulty require a significant portion of the VO2climb-peak. The higher HR and VO2 for outdoor climbing and the increased [La(b)] could be the result of repeated isometric contractions, particularly from the arm and forearm muscles.
Journal: British Journal of Sports Medicine - BRIT J SPORT MED , vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 14-18, 1999
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    • ...Much of the rock climbing literature has been focused on quantifying predictors of climbing performance, energy expenditure and utilization, and heart rate and VO2 responses (Booth et al. 1999; de Geus et al. 2006; Espana-Romero et al. 2009; Mermier et al. 2000; Wall et al. 2004; Watts et al. 2003)...
    • ...The strong GH response was a reflection of a potentially hypoglycemic state during exercise, the strong lactate response and high oxygen demand of the exercise (Booth et al. 1999; de Geus et al. 2006; Godfrey et al. 2003; Goodman 2009)...

    Vanessa D. Sherket al. Hormone responses to a continuous bout of rock climbing in men

    • ...Outdoor sport climbing requires similar movements, but performed on natural rocks (Booth et al. 1999)...
    • ...Research on rock climbing has increased during the last years and it has been mainly focused on physiological responses (Booth et al. 1999; Mermier et al. 1997; Sheel et al. 2003; Watts et al. 1996, 2000; Watts and Drobish 1998) as well as on the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of the climbers (Bertuzzi et al. 2007; Cutts and Bollen 1993; Grant et al. 1996; Mermier et al. 2000; Watts et al. 1993, 2006)...
    • ...Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of a sport climbing specific test (Booth et al. 1999)...
    • ...To minimise the influence of skill on the outcome of the maximal test, climbing speed was not incremented beyond 16 m/min (Booth et al. 1999)...
    • ...This test has been suggested to be adequate for the assessment of climbing-specific peak oxygen uptake (Booth et al. 1999)...
    • ...ergometer and the climbing test used in this study were similar to those used by Booth et al. (1999)...
    • ...Booth et al. (1999) used an increasing-speed test on which the highest speed was 16 m/min...
    • ...This could be related to the fact that in our study %BF was measured using DXA, whilst in most of the studies the %BF was estimated from skinfold thickness equations (Bertuzzi et al. 2007; Booth et al. 1999; Espan ˜a-Romero et al. 2006; Grant et al. 1996; Mermier et al. 1997, 2000; Sheel et al. 2003; Watts et al. 1993, 1996, 2003)...
    • ...The VO2peak values (measured in a treadwall) showed by Booth et al. (1999) were lower than those observed in our study...
    • ...This might be explained by the fact that the participants of our study had a higher climbing ability than the participants in Booth’s study (Booth et al. 1999) (7b and 8b in expert and elite group vs. 6b?, respectively)...
    • ...It must be mentioned that in both Booth et al. (1999) study and this study, VO2peak was registered for a given speed (16 m/min), which is a measure of economy rather than a measure of...
    • ...We used a questionnaire specially designed for this purpose (Wall et al. 2004), which makes our data comparable (Booth et al. 1999; Espan ˜a-Romero et al. 2006; Espan ˜a-Romero et al. 2009; Grant et al. 1996; Mermier et al. 2000; Watts et al. 2000, 2003)...

    Vanesa España-Romeroet al. Climbing time to exhaustion is a determinant of climbing performance i...

    • ...A series of formulas proposed by Billat et al. (1995), Booth et al. (1999), Mermier et al. (1997), Watts et al. (2000), Watts and Drobish (1998), all give approximately the same results, so we opted for the model of Mermier et al. (1997), because of its similarity with Et. According to these authors, energy spent for climbing is equivalent to the energy spent walking with a walking velocity of 1.9 m  s −1 ...

    Antoine K. N’guessanet al. Daily Energy Balance and Protein Gain Among Pan troglodytes verus in t...

    • ...In addition, to date only two studies appear to have been completed on natural rock, with the remaining research being conducted on artificial climbing walls or motorised and non-motorised climbing treadwalls (Booth et al., 1999; Mermier et al., 1997; Watts and Drobish, 1998)...
    • ...The majority of research projects have utilised bouldering or TRC systems rather than LC perhaps due to the lower risk of a ground fall (Booth et al., 1999; Draper et al., 2006a; Draper et al., 2006b; Gerbert and Werner, 2000; Mermier et al., 1997; Mermier et al., 2000; Sheel et al., 2003; Watts et al., 2000)...
    • ...Booth et al. (1999) suggested a higher relative aerobic contribution than researchers such as Billat et al. (1995) and Mermier et al. (2000)...
    • ...There appears, however, to be common agreement regarding the existence of disproportionate rise in heart rate (HR) relative to VO2 when comparing treadmill running with climbing (Billat et al., 1995; Booth et al., 1999; Draper et al., 2008b; Mermier et al., 1997; Sheel et al., 2003; Watts et al., 2000)...

    Nick Draperet al. Effect of an on-sight lead on the physiological and psychological resp...

    • ...Indoor sport climbing is characterized by movements on variable terrain fitted with artificial hand and foot holds (Booth et al. 1999)...
    • ...Research on sport climbing has also increased recently with a main focus on physiological responses during climbing (Booth et al. 1999; Mermier et al. 1997; Sheel et al. 2003; Watts et al. 1996, 2000; Watts and Drobish 1998) and anthropometric and physiological characteristics of the climbers (Bertuzzi et al. 2007; Cutts and Bollen 1993; Grant et al. 1996; Mermier et al. 2000; Watts et al. 1993, 2006)...
    • ...Oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) have been the physiological responses most studied in both indoor and outdoor climbing (Bertuzzi et al. 2007; Billat et al. 1995; Booth et al. 1999; de Geus et al. 2006; Espana-Romero et al. 2009b; Mermier et al. 1997; Sheel et al. 2003; Watts et al. 2000; Watts and Drobish 1998)...
    • ...It is acknowledged that rock climbing activity requires combined arm and leg work, and is characterized by dynamic moves interspersed with periods of isometric muscular contractions (Booth et al. 1999; Espana-Romero et al. 2009a; Ferguson and Brown 1997; Mermier et al. 1997)...
    • ...It has been observed that climbing speed normally slows and isometric holding increases with the difficulty of climbing (Booth et al. 1999)...

    Vanesa Espana-RomeroRandallet al. Physiological responses in rock climbing with repeated ascents over a ...

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