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The energy expenditure of normal and pathologic gait

The energy expenditure of normal and pathologic gait,10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00009-0,Gait & Posture,Robert L. Waters,Sara Mulroy

The energy expenditure of normal and pathologic gait   (Citations: 147)
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Physiological energy expenditure measurement has proven to be a reliable method of quantitatively assessing the penalties imposed by gait disability. The purpose of this review is to outline the basic principles of exercise physiology relevant to human locomotion; detail the energy expenditure of normal walking; and summarize the results of energy expenditure studies performed in patients with specific neurologic and orthopedic disabilities. The magnitude of the disabilities and the patients’ capacity to tolerate the increased energy requirements are compared. This paper also will examine the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions at mitigating the energetic penalties of disability during ambulation.
Journal: Gait & Posture - GAIT POSTURE , vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 207-231, 1999
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    • ...The results from studies that have compared the metabolic costs of treadmill and over-ground walking are equivocal (Murray, Spurr, Sepic, Gardner, & Mollinger, 1985; Pearce et al, 1983; Waters, Lunsford, Perry, & Byrd, 1988; Waters & Mulroy, 1999)...

    Gail Dechmanet al. Comparison of treadmill and over-ground Nordic walking

    • ...The O2 cost of walking is a physiological parameter that is influenced by subclinical and clinical manifestations of pathologic gait abnormalities [6] and provides an objective measure of the interaction between walking distance/speed and energy expenditure...
    • ...associated with the degree of pathologic gait abnormality in persons with neurologic and orthopedic conditions [6], and researchers have reported that the O2 cost of walking on a treadmill is elevated in persons with MS who have moderate disability compared with controls [7]...
    • ...The O2 cost of walking was calculated in ml kg -1 m -1 by dividing steady-state _ VO2 in ml kg -1 min -1 by treadmill speed in m min -1 [6]...
    • ...The O2 cost of walking was expressed as ml kg -1 m -1 by dividing steady-state _ VO2 in ml kg -1 min -1 by actual walking speed in m min -1 [6]...

    Robert W. MotlYoojinet al. Oxygen cost of treadmill and over-ground walking in mildly disabled pe...

    • ...It is known that the energy cost of walking is altered by pathological changes in gait [24]...
    • ...The determination of the oxygen cost of walking in ACLdeficient patients may provide a means to evaluate pre-and postoperative gait efficiency [24]...
    • ...These velocities are known to be within the limits of customary walking speeds for healthy [24] and ACL-reconstructed patients [14]...
    • ...Using the difference between the mean values that were obtained from this pilot study (0.18) and values that have been reported (0.15) in the literature [7, 24] with their respective SDs (0.02 and 0.02), the minimum sample number was calculated to be 7 in order to reach a power of 80% with a 5% type-1 error...
    • ...The preoperative oxygen cost results from our study support this hypothesis because the mean oxygen costs of customary walking velocities were higher than normal values (0.17 ± 0.01 vs. 0.15 ml/kg/m, respectively) that have been reported in the literature [24]...

    Mehmet Colaket al. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction improves the metabolic energ...

    • ...Reference [21] notes as the average customary walking speed for a transfemoral amputee to be 0.87m/s...

    Minerva V. Pillaiet al. Design of a semi-active knee-ankle prosthesis

    • ...The results from studies that have compared the metabolic costs of treadmill and over-ground walking are equivocal (Murray, Spurr, Sepic, Gardner, & Mollinger, 1985; Pearce et al, 1983; Waters, Lunsford, Perry, & Byrd, 1988; Waters & Mulroy, 1999)...

    Gail Dechmanet al. Comparison of treadmill and over-ground Nordic walking

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