Les modèles expérimentaux d’eczéma de contact

Les modèles expérimentaux d’eczéma de contact,10.1016/j.allerg.2007.04.001,Revue Francaise D Allergologie Et D Immunologie Clinique,M. Vocanson,A. Hen

Les modèles expérimentaux d’eczéma de contact  
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Knowledge of the pathophysiology of Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) derives chiefly from the murine experimental model of Contact Hypersensitivity referred to as the Mouse Ear Swelling Test (MEST). ACD is mediated by activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells specific for haptens in contact with the skin, and down-regulated by CD4+ T cells which limit the magnitude of the skin inflammation and participate to its resolution. Although the MEST is a major tool in the fields of immunodermatology and fundamental immunology, it is not sensitive enough to detect the sensitizing properties of common weak allergens and therefore is not used anymore in immunotoxicological studies. The MEST has been replaced by the Local lymph node Assay (LLNA), which brought tangible ethical benefits, but is endowed with low sensitivity and specificity. Recently, we reported that mice deficient in CD4+ T regulatory cells, but not normal mice, could develop a typical ACD reaction to weak haptens involved in human ACD to fragrances (Hexylcinnamaldehyde, Eugenol, Hydroxycitronellal). From this in vivo results, we developed an in vitro assay, referred to as the Weak Hapten Interferon Secreting T LymphocytE test (Whistle), able to detect the sensitizing properties of chemicals in contact with the skin.
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