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Mechanical properties and the hierarchical structure of bone

Mechanical properties and the hierarchical structure of bone,10.1016/S1350-4533(98)00007-1,Medical Engineering & Physics,Jae-Young Rho,Liisa Kuhn-Spea

Mechanical properties and the hierarchical structure of bone   (Citations: 266)
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Detailed descriptions of the structural features of bone abound in the literature; however, the mechanical properties of bone, in particular those at the micro- and nano-structural level, remain poorly understood. This paper surveys the mechanical data that are available, with an emphasis on the relationship between the complex hierarchical structure of bone and its mechanical properties. Attempts to predict the mechanical properties of bone by applying composite rule of mixtures formulae have been only moderately successful, making it clear that an accurate model should include the molecular interactions or physical mechanisms involved in transfer of load across the bone material subunits. Models of this sort cannot be constructed before more information is available about the interactions between the various organic and inorganic components. Therefore, further investigations of mechanical properties at the `materials level', in addition to the studies at the `structural level' are needed to fill the gap in our present knowledge and to achieve a complete understanding of the mechanical properties of bone.
Journal: Medical Engineering & Physics - MED ENG PHYS , vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 92-102, 1998
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    • ...a hierarchical way with interacting phenomena linking the different scales (Weiner and Traub 1992; Rho et al. 1998; Tovar 2004; Yoo and Jasiuk 2006)...

    Ridha Hambliet al. Multiscale methodology for bone remodelling simulation using coupled f...

    • ...The bone consists of irregular, sinuous convolutions of lamellae, which create a system of trabeculae and griddles arranged in the direction of biomechanical stress (Rho et al. 1998)...

    M. Martiniakováet al. Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Bones and Femoral Bone Stru...

    • ...Therefore, the varied structural architecture of bone at different length scales is intensively studied, and there are several excellent reviews describing the hierarchical structure of bone (Fratzl and Weinkamer 2007; Meyers et al. 2008; Rho et al. 1998; Weiner and Wagner 1998)...
    • ... cancellous and cortical bone; (2) microstructure level (from 10 to 500 microns): osteons, Haversian systems and trabeculae; (3) sub-microstructure level (from 1 to 10 microns): lamellae and mineralized collagen fibers; (4) nanostructure level (from a few hundred nanometers to 1 micron): mineralized collagen fibrils; and (5) the sub-nanostructure level (below a few hundred nanometers): molecular and atomic structure of major components (Rho et ...
    • ...Using the above values, there are approximately 150 periods axially (D = 67 nm ; Rho et al. 1998) and 12 periods radially (assuming the radial period to include one plate thickness and one spacing between the plates: 4 nm × 2 = 8 nm)...
    • ...TEM studies showed that the outer layer of the mineral plates consists of amorphous domains of mineral (Olszta et al. 2007; Rho et al. 1998) and that the thickness of the amorphous layer in the mineral phase could be about 1 nm (Bertinetti et al. 2007)...

    Fang Yuanet al. A new model to simulate the elastic properties of mineralized collagen...

    • ... layered structure,3–7µminwidth(Rhoetal.1998).Itiscylindricallydisposed around haversian channels forming osteons (Fig. 1a) andcircumferentiallyarrangedasouterandinnerlayersinthe corticalwall(Giraud-Guille1988).Alamellaiscomposedof mineralizedcollagenfibrilsembeddedinamineralizedextrafibrillar matrix containing non-collagenous proteins (Weiner and Traub 1992; McKee and Nanci 1996; Weiner and Wagner 1998; Fratzl and Weinkamer 2007; Rho et ...
    • ...A fibril-array consists of unidirectionally aligned mineralized collagen fibrils embedded in a mineralized extra-fibrillar matrix (Rho et al. 1998; Lees et al. 1994)...

    Andreas G. Reisingeret al. Elastic anisotropy of bone lamellae as a function of fibril orientatio...

    • ...Natural tissues are hierarchical structures assembled in a highly organized way composed of nano-, micro-, and macroscale building blocks, of which bone tissues constitute a good example [13]...

    J. Xiaoet al. The effect of hierarchical micro/nanosurface titanium implant on osseo...

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