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Impact of T. vaginalis infection on innate immune responses and reproductive outcome

Impact of T. vaginalis infection on innate immune responses and reproductive outcome,10.1016/j.jri.2009.08.007,Journal of Reproductive Immunology,Rain

Impact of T. vaginalis infection on innate immune responses and reproductive outcome   (Citations: 7)
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Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted pathogen. The infection is prevalent in reproductive age women and is associated with vaginitis, endometritis, adnexitis, pyosalpinx, infertility, preterm birth, low birth weight, bacterial vaginosis, and increased risk of cervical cancer, HPV, and HIV infection. In men, its complications include urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis, and infertility through inflammatory damage or interference with the sperm function. The infection is often asymptomatic and recurrent despite the presence of specific antibodies, suggesting the importance of the innate immune defense. T. vaginalis adhesion proteins, cysteine proteases, and the major parasite lipophosphoglycan (LPG) play distinct roles in the pathogenesis and evasion of host immunity. LPG plays a key role in the parasite adherence and signaling to human vaginal and cervical epithelial cells, which is at least in part mediated by galectins. The epithelial cells respond to T. vaginalis infection and purified LPG by selective upregulation of proinflammatory mediators. At the same time, T. vaginalis triggers an immunosuppressive response in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive complications and epidemiologic risks associated with T. vaginalis infection remain to be elucidated.
Journal: Journal of Reproductive Immunology - J REPROD IMMUNOL , vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 185-189, 2009
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    • ...Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted, flagellated protozoan that colonizes the mucosal epithelium of the human genitourinary tract, most consistently the vagina in women and urethra in men, causing inflammatory disease and associated risks of reproductive problems [17]...
    • ...Immunosuppressive effects on bystander immune cells have also been observed in vitro; however, their molecular basis remains poorly understood [17]...
    • ...post-hysterectomy cuff cellulitis, and viral STIs including human immunodeficiency virus and human papillomavirus [17]...

    Russell P. Goodmanet al. Trichomonasvirus : a new genus of protozoan viruses in the family Toti...

    • ...This protozoan infection imposes serious health problems on female patients, especially during pregnancy, and is implicated as a risk factor for cervical cancer and for a predisposition to human immunodeficiency virus contagion [6, 10, 11, 22, 26]...

    Irina N. Bessarabet al. Identification and characterization of a type III Trichomonas vaginali...

    • ...In women, T. vaginalis causes a wide spectrum of symptoms, ranging from a relatively asymptomatic state to severe inflammation and irritation with foul-smelling vaginal discharge, low abdominal pain, and dysuria [8, 9]. Importantly, the infection is often recurrent, with no lasting immunity, suggesting the importance of innate immunity [10]...
    • ...Moreover, the next investigations will be conducted with the human cervical and epithelial cells, which represent the main physiologic model for the study of trichomonosis because they are the host cells supporting the parasite adherence, survival, and replication in the genital tract [10]...

    Amanda Piccoli Frassonet al. Involvement of purinergic signaling on nitric oxide production by neut...

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