Sex steroid hormone metabolism and prostate cancer

Sex steroid hormone metabolism and prostate cancer,10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.10.004,Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,P. Soronen,M. Lai

Sex steroid hormone metabolism and prostate cancer   (Citations: 30)
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The growth and function of the prostate is dependent on androgens. The two predominant androgens are testosterone, which is formed in the testis from androstenedione and 5α-dihydrotestosterone, which is formed from testosterone by 5α-reductases and is the most active androgen in the prostate. Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men and androgens are involved in controlling the growth of androgen-sensitive malignant prostatic cells. The endocrine therapy used to treat prostate cancer aims to eliminate androgenic activity from the prostatic tissue. Most prostate cancers are initially responsive to androgen withdrawal but become later refractory to the therapy and begin to grow androgen-independently. Using LNCaP prostate cancer cell line we have developed a cell model to study the progression of prostate cancer. In the model androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells are transformed in culture conditions into more aggressive, androgen-independent cells. The model was used to study androgen and estrogen metabolism during the transformation process. Our results indicate that substantial changes in androgen and estrogen metabolism occur in the cells during the process. A remarkable decrease in the oxidative 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was seen whereas the reductive activity seemed to increase. The changes suggest that during transformation estrogen influence is increasing in the cells. This is supported by the cDNA microarray screening results which showed over-expression of several genes up-regulated by estrogens in the LNCaP cells line representing progressive prostate cancer. Since local steroid metabolism controls the bioavailability of active steroid hormones in the prostate, the variations in steroid-metabolizing enzymes during cancer progression may be crucial in the regulation of the growth and function of the organ.
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