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Public research and industrial innovations in Germany

Public research and industrial innovations in Germany,10.1016/S0048-7333(98)00126-7,Research Policy,Marian Beise,Harald Stahl

Public research and industrial innovations in Germany   (Citations: 152)
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This paper deals with the effects of publicly funded research at universities, polytechnics and federal research laboratories on industrial innovations in Germany. We discuss the characteristics of companies that benefit from the findings of public research institutions. In questioning 2300 companies, we found that less than one-tenth of product- or process-innovating firms introduced innovations between 1993 and 1995 that would not have been developed without public research. These new products amount to approximately 5% of all new product sales. Universities are cited by firms with publicly supported innovations as the most important source, although publicly financed laboratories get almost as many citations. Big science laboratories are almost invisible, suggesting that their technology transfer to industrial firms still lacks effectiveness. Firms also tend to cite research institutions that are located close to the firm. But contrary to the widely held opinion that proximity to public research institutions does promote collaboration between firms and public research and increase the amount of received knowledge spillovers, we found no higher probability of publicly supported innovations for firms in Germany that are located near universities or polytechnics. However, the firm's own R&D activities instead support the ability to absorb the findings of public research and turn them into innovations. Additionally, firms with high R&D intensities cite remote public research institutes more frequently than less R&D-intensive firms, suggesting that in Germany, high-technology does not depend on co-location of public and private research.
Journal: Research Policy - RES POLICY , vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 397-422, 1999
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    • ...Furthermore, exploratory studies from the 1990s (Mansfield 1998; Beise and Stahl 1999) have indicated that industrial innovations that would have been delayed for a year or more in the absence of academic research accounted for approximately 5% of total Firms’ rationales for interaction with research universities...

    Anders Broström. Firms’ rationales for interaction with research universities and the p...

    • ...Nevertheless, East German organizations seem to engage more actively in collaboration than their West German counterparts (Cantner and Meder 2008) and tend to show a stronger focus on intra-regional relationships (Beise and Stahl 1999)...

    Tom Broekelet al. Public research intensity and the structure of German R&D networks: a ...

    • ...Thus, much work focuses on the creation and development of spin-offs, stressing the importance of proximity to knowledge source and the role of public authority and parent organization support, as well as potential benefits from the particular firm environment (Beise and Stahl 1999; Callan 2001; Garvin 1983; Klepper and Sleeper 2005; Koster 2006; Mustar 1998; Turner 2000)...
    • ...One thing that is common across the spin-off literature, regardless of differences in data and methodologies, is that access to knowledge is assumed to be a very important locational determinant for firms in knowledge-intensive sectors (see, e.g., Beise and Stahl 1999; Feldman 1999; Rees and Stafford 1986; Stöhr 1986)...

    Anna Lejpraset al. Locational conditions, cooperation, and innovativeness: evidence from ...

    • ...To develop and to market a novel product, getting knowledge and collaborating with customers is as important as performing internal R&D investments, since customers are an important source of information that may boost product innovation (Levin and Reiss 1988; Belderbos et al. 2004a, b). When product innovation is based on a recent scientific discovery, it often entails a formal collaboration with universities (Beise and Stahl 1999 ;T ...
    • ...Both results are consistent with previous findings (Beise and Stahl 1999 ;T ether2002) discussed in Section 2. In terms of investment, some similarities at the firm level can be found, too...

    Isabel Maria Bodas Freitaset al. Formal and informal external linkages and firms� innovative strategies...

    • ...Because technical colleges are more often specialized in the same technological fields as local corporations (Beise and Stahl 1999) they should contribute stronger to firms’ innovation activities...
    • ...The benefits of these spillovers seem to decrease with increasing geographic distance (Beise and Stahl 1999; Adams 2002)...
    • ...For certain faculties of technical colleges this share is as low as 5% (Beise and Stahl 1999)...
    • ...At the same time, technical colleges have a stronger local focus and are more application oriented (Beise and Stahl 1999)...
    • ...While the latter focuses on applied research, the first is stronger focused on basic research (Beise and Stahl 1999)...

    Tom Broekelet al. Regional factors and innovativeness: an empirical analysis of four Ger...

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