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A Further Assessment of Blanchard’s Typology of Homosexual Versus Non-Homosexual or Autogynephilic Gender Dysphoria

A Further Assessment of Blanchard’s Typology of Homosexual Versus Non-Homosexual or Autogynephilic Gender Dysphoria,10.1007/s10508-009-9579-2,Archives

A Further Assessment of Blanchard’s Typology of Homosexual Versus Non-Homosexual or Autogynephilic Gender Dysphoria   (Citations: 10)
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In a series of important but now highly controversial articles, Blanchard examined associations of sexual orientation and transvestic fetishism among male-to-female (MTF) transgender persons in Toronto, Canada. Transvestic fetishism was rare among the homosexuals but prevalent among the non-homosexuals. Subtypes of non-homosexual MTFs (heterosexual, bisexual, and asexual) were consistently high with regard to transvestic fetishism. Non-linear associations of a continuous measurement of sexual attraction to women (gynephilia) and transvestic fetishism were interpreted in terms of an etiological hypothesis in which transvestic fetishism interferes with the early development of heterosexuality. Blanchard concluded that homosexual versus non-homosexual sexual orientation is a dominant and etiologically significant axis for evaluating and understanding this population. We further assessed these findings among 571 MTFs from the New York City metropolitan area. Using the Life Chart Interview, multiple measurements of transvestic fetishism were obtained and classified as lifetime, lifecourse persistent, adolescent limited, and adult onset. Large (but not deterministic) differences in lifetime, lifecourse persistent, and adolescent limited transvestic fetishism were found between the homosexuals and non-homosexuals. Contrary to Blanchard, differences in transvestic fetishism were observed across subtypes of the non-homosexuals, and linear (not curvilinear) associations were found along a continuous measurement of gynephilia and transvestic fetishism. Age and ethnicity, in addition to sexual orientation, were found to be statistically significant predictors of transvestic fetishism. The clinical, etiological, and sociopolitical implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal: Archives of Sexual Behavior - ARCH SEX BEHAV , vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 247-257, 2011
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    • ...Our study also showed for the first time that GID male youth with a non-homosexual sexual orientation reported more symptoms of TF than GID youth with a homosexual sexual orientation, a finding that converges with studies of GID adult males (Blanchard, 1985, 1991, 1993; Nuttbrock et al, 2011)...

    Kenneth J. Zuckeret al. Demographics, Behavior Problems, and Psychosexual Characteristics of A...

    • ...By dividing MtF transsexuals into these two groups based on their sexual orientation, Blanchard (1985, 1988, 1989) and others (Freund, Steiner, & Chan, 1982; Johnson & Hunt, 1990; Nuttbrock et al, 2009; Smith, van Goozen, Kuiper, & Cohen-Kettenis, 2005; Veale, Clarke, & Lomax, 2008) have found evidence for average differences between the groups that were proposed by Blanchard...

    Jaimie F. Vealeet al. Male-to-Female Transsexuals’ Impressions of Blanchard's Autogynephilia...

    • ...Although it can be argued that the etiology or development of Transvestic Fetishism is not relevant for a descriptive classification of mental disorders, attention to its development is justified in this context in light of the heated controversy over the role of autogynephilia and “erotic target localization error” in the development of Transvestic Fetishism and gender dysphoria and the proposed consequences for the DSM 5 (eg, see Blanchard, 2010; Cohen-Kettenis & Pfäfflin, 2010; Lawrence, 2009, 2010a, 2010b; Moser, & Kleinplatz, 2002; Nuttbrock et al, 2010a, 2010b)...

    Luk Gijset al. Should Transvestic Fetishism Be Classified in DSM 5? Recommendations f...

    • ...A Validation of Blanchard’s Typology: Comment on Nuttbrock et al. (2010)...
    • ...In a recent article, Nuttbrock et al. (2010) attempted to assess the validity of Blanchard’s (1985, 1989a, b, 1991, 1992 )s exual orientation-based typology of male-to-female (MtF) transsexualism, which categorized MtF transsexuals as either homosexual (exclusively sexually attracted to males) or nonhomosexual and autogynephilic (sexually attracted to the thought or image of themselves as female) and further subdivided ...
    • ...The population that Nuttbrock et al. (2010) surveyed was not ideally suited to an assessment of the validity of Blanchard’s typology, which was developed to describe MtF transsexuals: gender-dysphoric males who reported that they felt like women ‘‘at all times and for at least one year’’(Blanchard, 1985 ,p . 250; 1989b, p. 618)...
    • ...Fig. 1 Lifetime prevalence of transvestic fetishism (TF) versus sexual orientation as reported by Blanchard (1985) and Nuttbrock et al. (2010) 1012 Arch Sex Behav (2010) 39:1011–1015...
    • ...Third and finally, Nuttbrock et al. (2010) highlighted their observation that ‘‘age and ethnicity, in addition to sexual orientation, were found to be statistically significant predictors’’of TF in their population, whereas Blanchard (1989b, 1991 )h ad not theorized any role for age or ethnicity in explaining autogynephilia...
    • ...Fig. 2 Prevalence of transvestic fetishism (TF) versus gynephilia as reported by Blanchard (1992) and Nuttbrock et al. (2010)...
    • ...Table 1 Bivariate correlations of independent and dependent variables in Nuttbrock et al. (2010)...
    • ...Nuttbrock et al. (2010) did propose a theoretical explanation, arguing that Whites and older persons were more likely than non-Whites and younger persons to find cross-dressing ‘‘exotic’’ and thus erotic; their argument, however, was not supported by any cited empirical evidence...
    • ...Nuttbrock et al.’s explanation also relied on a misinterpretation of Bem’s (2000)‘‘exotic becomes erotic’’ theory: Contrary to Nuttbrock et al.’s account, Bem did not propose that ‘‘socially exotic behaviors and experiences [emphasis added] may become eroticized because they are associated with… emotional and physiological arousal’’ (Nuttbrock et al., 2010)...
    • ...In summary, although Nuttbrock et al. (2010) highlighted a few minor differences between their results and Blanchard’s (1985, 1989b, 1992), close examination reveals that these differences are exaggerated and have no theoretical implications...

    Anne A. Lawrence. A Validation of Blanchard’s Typology: Comment on Nuttbrock et al. (201...

    • ...Another recent study conducted by Nuttbrock et al. (2009) examined the frequency of cross-gender arousal in a nonclinical sample of 571 MtF transgender individuals living in the New York City metropolitan area (nontranssexual female controls were not used)...

    Julia M. Serano. The Case Against Autogynephilia

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